African spiny-tailed lizards (Uromastyx) are large, herbivorous lizards extensively traded locally for food and internationally as pets. Several species have recently been described, although some remain controversial. To determine relationships within North African forms, twenty individuals were analysed for over 1000 bases of mitochondrial DNA sequences. Phylogenetic analyses indicate four deeply divergent lineages that correspond to sampling areas, but not to current species designations. These results indicate that present taxonomy does not reflect the evolutionary history of these species.