The reproductive biology of Chironius flavolineatus and C. quadricarinatus from the Brazilian Cerrado domain is described, including sexual maturity, female fecundity, and reproductive cycles of males and females. Egg-laying is recorded here for the first time for C. quadricarinatus. Males of both species attain sexual maturity with a smaller snout-vent length than females. Females of C. flavolineatus have an extended reproductive cycle with egg production during the wet season, whereas males exhibit year-round sperm production. Chironius quadricarinatus has continuous reproductive cycles in both sexes. Differences in reproductive pattern between these two sympatric species are probably related to phylogenetic constraints on intrageneric lineages of Chironius.