Origin and dispersal routes of foreign green and Kemp’s ridley turtles in Spanish Atlantic and Mediterranean waters

in Amphibia-Reptilia
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?


The presence of the green and Kemp’s ridley turtles is rare at Atlantic and Mediterranean Spanish waters, but the records have increased during the last decades. We reported a new set of records and reviewed all the historical observations of these species. The analysis of a mitochondrial DNA fragment of the newest records provided insights about the origin of the individuals. The Kemp’s ridley turtles arrived from the western Atlantic nesting beaches, although the discovering of a new haplotype suggested the existence of an unknown or low sampled nesting area of origin. Furthermore, the genetic analysis was crucial for the species identification in one specimen, hence recommending the use of genetic markers to confirm the presence of a rare species. All green turtles presented haplotypes exclusive from Atlantic nesting beaches and concentrated in the African populations. Thus, the closest eastern Mediterranean nesting areas were discarded as source populations and a new migration route for this species was described.

Origin and dispersal routes of foreign green and Kemp’s ridley turtles in Spanish Atlantic and Mediterranean waters

in Amphibia-Reptilia



Abreu-GroboisA.HorrocksJ.FormiaA.LerouxR.Velez-ZuazoX.DuttonP.H.SoaresL.MeylanA.BrowneD. (2006): New mtDNA dloop primers which work for a variety of marine turtle species may increase the resolution capacity of mixed stock analysis. In: 26th Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation p. 179. Frick M.G. Panagopoulou A. Rees A. Williams K.L. Eds Crete Greece.

Álvarez de QuevedoI.CardonaL.De HaroA.PubillE.AguilarA. (2010): Sources of bycatch of loggerhead sea turtles in the western Mediterranean other than drifting longlines. Ices Journal of Marine Science 67: 677-685.

BaezJ.C.RealR.MaciasD.de la SernaJ.M.BellidoJ.J.CamiñasJ.A. (2010): Captures of swordfish Xiphias gladius (Linnaeus 1758) and loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta (Linnaeus 1758) associated with different bait combinations in the Western Mediterranean surface longline fishery. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 26: 126-127.

BagdaE.BardakciF.TurkozanO. (2012): Lower genetic structuring in mitochondrial DNA than nuclear DNA among the nesting colonies of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the Mediterranean. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 43: 192-199.

BarberR.C.FontaineC.T.FlanaganJ.P.LouisE.E.Jr. (2003): Natural hybridization between a Kemp’s ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) and loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) confirmed by molecular analysis. Chelonian Conserv. Bi. 4: 701-704.

BarceloF. (1876): Nuevos apuntes para la fauna balear: catálogo de los reptiles y de los moluscos terrestres y de agua dulce observados en las islas Baleares. Museo Balear de Historia y Literatura Ciencias y Artes 3: 201-210.

BertoleroA. (2003): Varamientos y capturas marinas en los alrededores del Delta del Ebro (NE España) entre los años 1984 y 2001. Revista Española de Herpetología 17: 39-53.

BoltenA.B.BjorndalK.A.MartinsH.R.DellingerT.BiscoitoM.J.EncaladaS.E.BowenB.W. (1998): Transatlantic developmental migrations of loggerhead sea turtles demonstrated by mtDNA sequence analysis. Ecol. Appl. 8: 1-7.

BoscáE. (1877): Catálogo de los reptiles y anfibios observados en España, Portugal e Islas Baleares. Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural 6: 39-69.

BoscáE. (1916): Individuo anómalo de Chelonia mydas (L.) en el Mediterráneo. Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural 16: 446-448.

BourjeaJ.LapegueS.GagnevinL.BroderickD.MortimerJ.A.CiccioneS.RoosD.TaquetC.GrizelH. (2007): Phylogeography of the green turtle, Chelonia mydas, in the Southwest Indian Ocean. Mol. Ecol. 16: 175-186.

BowenB.W.KarlS.A. (1997): Population genetics, phylogeography, and molecular evolution. In: The Biology of Sea Turtles p.  29-50. LutzP.L.MusickJ.A. Eds CRC PressBoca Raton.

BowenB.W.ClarkA.M.Abreu-GroboisF.A.ChavesA.ReichartH.A.FerlR.J. (1998): Global phylogeography of the ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys spp.) as inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Genetica (Dordrecht) 101: 179-189.

BowenB.W.BassA.L.SoaresL.ToonenR.J. (2005): Conservation implications of complex population structure: lessons from the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta). Mol. Ecol. 14: 2389-2402.

BowenB.W.KarlS.A. (2007): Population genetics and phylogeography of sea turtles. Mol. Ecol. 16: 4886-4907.

BrongersmaL.D. (1967): Guide for the identification of stranded turtles on British coasts. Publication of the British Museum (Natural History): 1-23.

BrongersmaL.D. (1972): European Atlantic turtles. Zoologische Verhandelingen 121: 1-317.

BrongersmaL.D.CarrA.F. (1983): Lepidochelys kempi (Garman) from Malta. Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie Van Wetenschappen Series C-Biological and Medical Sciences 86: 445-454.

CalabuigP.Liria-LozaA. (2007): Recovery of marine turtles injured in the waters of the Canary island archipelago (Spain) between 1998 and 2003. In: Marine Turtles. Recovery of Extinct Populations p.  113-123. López-JuradoL.F.Liria-LozaA. Eds Instituto Canario de Ciencias MarinasLas Palmas, Spain.

CalabuigP.Liria-LozaA.López-JuradoL.F. (2007): Sea turtles recovered at the Wild Fauna Recovery Center in Gran Canaria (Canary Islands Spain). In: Proceedings of the 24th Annual Sea Turtle Symposium p. 76. NMFS-SEFSC-567 N.T.M. Ed. San José Costa Rica NOAA.

CamiñasJ.A. (2002): Estatus y conservación de las Tortugas Marinas en España. In: Atlas y Libro Rojo de los Anfibios y Reptiles de España p.  345-380. PleguezuelosJ.M.MárquezR.LizianaM. Eds Dirección General de Conservación de la Naturaleza-Asociación Herpetológica EspañolaMadrid.

CamiñasJ.A.BaezJ.C.ValeirasX.RealR. (2006): Differential loggerhead by-catch and direct mortality due to surface longlines according to boat strata and gear type. Scientia Marina 70: 661-665.

CarrerasC.CardonaL.AguilarA. (2004): Incidental catch of the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean). Biol. Conserv. 117: 321-329.

CarrerasC.PontS.MaffucciF.PascualM.BarceloA.BentivegnaF.CardonaL.AlegreF.SanFelixM.FernandezG.AguilarA. (2006): Genetic structuring of immature loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Mediterranean Sea reflects water circulation patterns. Mar. Biol. 149: 1269-1279.

CarrerasC.TomásJ. (2010): Spain. In: Sea Turtles in the Mediterranean: Distribution Threats and Conservation Priorities p.  205-232. CasaleP.MargaritoulisD. Eds IUCNGland, Switzerland.

CarrerasC.PascualM.CardonaL.MarcoA.BellidoJ.J.CastilloJ.J.TomásJ.RagaJ.A.SanfelixM.FernandezG.AguilarA. (2011): Living together but remaining apart: Atlantic and Mediterranean loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in shared feeding grounds. J. Hered. 102: 666-677.

CasaleP.MazarisA.D.FreggiD.BassoR.ArganoR. (2007): Survival probabilities of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) estimated from capture-mark-recapture data in the Mediterranean Sea. Scientia Marina 71: 365-372.

CasaleP.MargaritoulisD. (2010): Sea Turtles in the Mediterranean: Distribution Threats and Conservation Priorities. IUCN/SSC Marine Turtle Specialist GroupGland, Switzerland.

DiMatteoA.D.FujiokaE.WallaceB.P.HutchinsonB.J.ClearyJ.HalpinP.N. (2009): SWOT Database Online. Available at http://seamap.env.duke.edu/swot.

DuttonP.H. (1995): Methods for collection and preservation of samples for sea turtle genetic studies. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sea Turtle Conservation Genetics p. 17-24. Bowen B.W. Witzell W.N. Eds Springfield Virginia NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC 396. National Technical Information Service.

EckertS.A.MooreJ.E.DunnD.C.van BuitenR.S.EckertK.L.HalpinP.N. (2008): Modeling loggerhead turtle movement in the Mediterranean: Importance of body size and oceanography. Ecol. Appl. 18: 290-308.

EncaladaS.E.LahanasP.N.BjorndalK.A.BoltenA.B.MiyamotoM.M.BowenB.W. (1996): Phylogeography and population structure of the Atlantic and Mediterranean green turtle Chelonia mydas: A mitochondrial DNA control region sequence assessment. Mol. Ecol. 5: 473-483.

Fernández de la CigoñaE. (1994): Esta fauna nosa Vigo.

FormiaA.GodleyB.J.DontaineJ.F.BrufordM.W. (2006): Mitochondrial DNA diversity and phylogeography of endangered green turtle (Chelonia mydas) populations in Africa. Conserv. Genet. 7: 353-369.

GarmanS. (1880): On certain species of Chelonioidae. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 6: 123-126.

GodleyB.J.RichardsonS.BroderickA.C.CoyneM.S.GlenF.HaysG.C. (2002): Long-term satellite telemetry of the movements and habitat utilisation by green turtles in the Mediterranean. Ecography 25: 352-362.

GosheL.R.AvensL.ScharfF.S.SouthwoodA.L. (2010): Estimation of age at maturation and growth of Atlantic green turtles (Chelonia mydas) using skeletochronology. Mar. Biol. 157: 1725-1740.

GroombridgeB. (1990): Marine turtles in the Mediterranean: distribution, population status, conservation. Nature and Environment Series (Council of Europe) 48: 1-98.

HallT.A. (1999): BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series 41: 95-98.

HaysG.C.BroderickA.C.GodleyB.J.LuschiP.NichoisW.J. (2003): Satellite telemetry suggests high levels of fishing-induced mortality in marine turtles. Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser. 262: 305-309.

InsaccoG.SpadolaF. (2010): First record of Kemp’s ridley sea turtle, Lepidochelys kempii (Garman, 1880) (Cheloniidae), from the Italian waters (Mediterranean Sea). Acta Herpetol. 5: 113-117.

IUCN (2011): Red list of threatened species. Version 2011.2. http://www.iucnredlist.org/.

JohnsonS.A.BassA.L.LibertB.MarshallM.FulkD. (1999): Kemp’s ridley (Lepidochelys kempi) nesting in Florida. Florida Scientist 62: 194-204.

KarlS.A.BowenB.W.AviseJ.C. (1992): Global population genetic structure and male-mediated gne flow in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas)-RFLP analyses of anonimous nuclear loci. Genetics 131: 163-173.

Lara-RuizP.LopezG.G.SantosF.R.SoaresL.S. (2006): Extensive hybridization in hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) nesting in Brazil revealed by mtDNA analyses. Conserv. Genet. 7: 773-781.

LaurentL.LescureJ.ExcoffierL.BowenB.W.DomingoM.HadjichristophorouM.KornarakyL.TrabuchtG. (1993): Genetic studies of relationships between Mediterranean and Atlantic populations of loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta with a mitochondrial marker. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences de la Vie. Sciences de la Vie Paris 316: 1233-1239.

LaurentL.CasaleP.BradaiM.N.GodleyB.J.GerosaG.BroderickA.C.SchrothW.SchierwaterB.LevyA.M.FreggiD.Abd El-MawlaE.M.HadoudD.A.GomatiH.E.DomingoM.HadjichristophorouM.KornarakyL.DemirayakF.GautierC. (1998): Molecular resolution of marine turtle stock composition in fishery bycatch: a case study in the Mediterranean. Mol. Ecol. 7: 1529-1542.

LewisonR.L.CrowderL.B.ShaverD.J. (2003): The impact of turtle excluder devices and fisheries closures on loggerhead and Kemp’s ridley strandings in the western Gulf of Mexico. Conserv. Biol. 17: 1089-1097.

LohmannK.J.WitheringtonB.E.LohmannC.M.F.SalmonM. (1997): Orientation, navigation and natal beach homing in sea turtles. In: The Biology of Sea Turtles p.  107-136. LutzP.L.MusickJ.A. Eds CRC PressBoca Raton.

Lopez-CastroM.C.Rocha-OlivaresA. (2005): The panmixia paradigm of eastern Pacific olive ridley turtles revised: consequences for their conservation and evolutionary biology. Mol. Ecol. 14: 3325-3334.

López-JuradoL.F.LiriaA. (2007): Marine Turtles. Recovery of Extinct Populations. Instituto Canario de Ciéncias Marinas Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain).

López SeoaneV. (1877): Reptiles y anfibios de Galicia. Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural 6: 349-358.

LoveridgeA.WilliamsE. (1957): Revision of the African tortoises and turtles of the suborder Cryptodira. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 115: 163-557.

MachadoA. (1859): Erpetología hispalensis, seu catalogus methudicus reptilium et amphibiorum in provincia hispalensi viventium. MDCCLIX. Real Academia de Ciencias Exactas Físicas y Naturales IV (Ciencias Naturales): 561-573.

MastR.B.CarrJ.L. (1989): Carapacial scute variation in Kemp’s Ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempi) hatchlings and juveniles.

MillerJ.D. (1997): Reproduction in sea turtles. In: The Biology of Sea Turtles p.  51-82. LutzP.L.MusickJ.A. Eds CRC PressBoca Raton.

Monzon-ArguelloC.RicoC.CarrerasC.CalabuigP.MarcoA.Lopez-JuradoL.F. (2009): Variation in spatial distribution of juvenile loggerhead turtles in the eastern Atlantic and western Mediterranean Sea. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 373: 79-86.

Monzon-ArguelloC.Lopez-JuradoL.F.RicoC.MarcoA.LopezP.HaysG.C.LeeP.L.M. (2010): Evidence from genetic and Lagrangian drifter data for transatlantic transport of small juvenile green turtles. J. Biogeogr. 37: 1752-1766.

Monzon-ArguelloC.Dell’AmicoF.MoriniereP.MarcoA.Lopez-JuradoL.F.HaysG.C.ScottR.MarshR.LeeP.L.M. (2012): Lost at sea: genetic, oceanographic and meteorological evidence for storm-forced dispersal. J. R. Soc. Interface 9: 1725-1732.

MoritzC. (1994): Defining evolutionarily significant units for conservation. Trends Ecol. Evol. 9: 373-375.

MrosovskyN. (2006a): Commentary: What is a subpopulation? Marine Turtle Newsletter 114: 8.

MrosovskyN. (2006b): Does the Mediterranean green turtle exist? Marine Turtle Newsletter 111: 1-2.

MusickJ.A.LimpusC.J. (1997): Habitat utilization and migration in juvenile sea turtles. In: Biology of Sea Turtles p.  137-164. LutzP.L.MusickJ.A. Eds CRC PressBoca Raton.

Naro-MacielE.FormiaA. (2006): Sea turtle subpopulations and the IUCN Red List: a complemetary role for conservation genetics. Marine Turtle Newsletter 114: 6-8.

National Marine Fisheries Service U.S. Service F.a.W. SEMARNAT (2011): Bi-National Recovery Plan for the Kemp’s Ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) Silver Spring Mariland National Marine Fisheries Service.

OliverG.PignoA. (2005): First observation of a Kemp’s ridley Lepidochelys kempii (Garman 1880) (Reptilia Chelonii Cheloniidae) on the French Mediterranean coasts. Bulletin de la Societe Herpetologique de France 116.

OwensD.W.RuizG.J. (1980): New methods of obtaining blood and cerebrospinal-fluid from marine turtles. Herpetologica 36: 17-20.

PascualX. (1985): Contribution of the study of marine turtles on Spanish coasts I. Distribution. Miscellania Zoologica (Barcelona) 9: 287-294.

PasteurG.BonsJ. (1960): Catalogue des reptiles actuels du Maroc. Travaux de l’Institute Scientifique Chérifien 21: 1-132.

PéreaC.ValdésP.Pis-MillánJ.A. (2001): Tortugas marinas en la costa asturiana. In: XIV Reunión Bienal de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural p. 90. Murcia.

PiovanoS.ClusaM.CarrerasC.GiacomaC.PascualM.CardonaL. (2011): Different growth rates between loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) of Mediterranean and Atlantic origin in the Mediterranean Sea. Mar. Biol. 158: 2577-2587.

PritchardP.C.H.MortimerJ.A. (1999): Taxonomy, external morphology, and species identification. In: Research and Management Techniques for the Conservation of Sea Turtles p.  21-38. EckertK.L.BjorndalA.Abreu-GroboisA.DonnellyM. Eds IUCN/SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group Publication.

ProiettiM.C.ReisserJ.W.KinasP.G.KerrR.MonteiroD.S.MarinsL.F.SecchiE.R. (2012): Green turtle Chelonia mydas mixed stocks in the western South Atlantic, as revealed by mtDNA haplotypes and drifter trajectories. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 447: 195-209.

PutmanN.F.ShayT.J.LohmannK.J. (2010): Is the geographic distribution of nesting in the Kemp’s Ridley turtle shaped by the migratory needs of offspring? Integr. Comp. Biol. 50: 305-314.

PutmanN.F.MansfieldK.L.HeR.ShaverD.J.VerleyP. (2013): Predicting the distribution of oceanic-stage Kemp’s ridley sea turtles. Biol. Lett. 9: 20130345.

PutmanN.F.Naro-MacielE. (2013): Finding the ‘lost years’ in green turtles: insights from ocean circulation models and genetic analysis. Proceedings Biological sciences/The Royal Society 280: 20131468.

ReesA.F.JonyM.MargaritoulisD.GodleyB.J. (2008): Satellite tracking of a Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, from Syria further highlights importance of North Africa for Mediterranean turtles. Zool. Middle East 45: 49-54.

RevellesM.CarrerasC.CardonaL.MarcoA.BentivegnaF.CastilloJ.J.De MartinoG.MonsJ.L.SmithM.B.RicoC.PascualM.AguilarA. (2007): Evidence for an asymmetrical size exchange of loggerhead sea turtles between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic through the Straits of Gibraltar. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 349: 261-271.

RobertsM.A.SchwartzT.S.KarlS.A. (2004): Global population genetic structure and male-mediated gene flow in the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas): Analysis of microsatellite loci. Genetics 166: 1857-1870.

RodenS.E.MorinP.A.FreyA.BalazsG.H.ZarateP.ChengI.J.DuttonP.H. (2013): Green turtle population structure in the Pacific: new insights from single nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellites. Endang. Species Res. 20: 227-234.

SEATURTLE.ORG Maptool (2002): http://www.seaturtle.org/maptool/. SEATURTLE.ORG Inc.

SellaI. (1982): Sea turtles in the eastern Mediterranean and northern Red Sea. In: Biology and Conservation of Sea Turtles p.  417-423. BjorndalA. Ed. Smithsonian Institution PressWashington DC.

SheininA.P.KeremD.MacleodC.D.GazoM.ChicoteC.A.CastelloteM. (2011): Gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) in the Mediterranean Sea: anomalous event or early sign of climate-driven distribution change? Marine Biodiversity Records 4: 1-5.

TomásJ.FreteyJ.RagaA.CastroviejoJ. (2001): Tortues marines de la façade atlantique de l’Afrique. Genre Lepidochelys. 1. Quelques données concernant la présence de L. olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829) dans l’îlle de Bioko (Guinée Équatoriale). Bulletin de la Societe Herpetologique de France 98: 31-42.

TomásJ.FormiaA.FernandezM.RagaJ.A. (2003): Occurrence and genetic analysis of a Kemp’s Ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) in the Mediterranean Sea. Scientia Marina 67: 367-369.

TomásJ.GazoM.AlvarezC.GozalbesP.PerdigueroD.RagaJ.A.AlegreF. (2008): Is the Spanish coast within the regular nesting range of the Mediterranean loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta)? Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 88: 1509-1512.

TomásJ.RagaJ.A. (2008): Occurrence of Kemp’s ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) in the Mediterranean. Marine Biodiversity Records 5640: e58.

VilacaS.T.VargasS.M.Lara-RuizP.MolfettiE.ReisE.C.Lobo-HajduG.SoaresL.S.SantosF.R. (2012): Nuclear markers reveal a complex introgression pattern among marine turtle species on the Brazilian coast. Mol. Ecol. 21: 4300-4312.

WallaceB.P.DiMatteoA.D.HurleyB.J.FinkbeinerE.M.BoltenA.B.ChaloupkaM.Y.HutchinsonB.J.Alberto Abreu-GroboisF.AmorochoD.BjorndalK.A.BourjeaJ.BowenB.W.Briseno DuenasR.CasaleP.ChoudhuryB.C.CostaA.DuttonP.H.FallabrinoA.GirardA.GirondotM.GodfreyM.H.HamannM.Lopez-MendilaharsuM.MarcovaldiM.A.MortimerJ.A.MusickJ.A.NelR.PilcherN.J.SeminoffJ.A.TroengS.WitheringtonB.MastR.B. (2010): Regional management units for marine turtles: a novel framework for prioritizing conservation and research across multiple scales. Plos One 5.

WallaceB.P.DiMatteoA.D.BoltenA.B.ChaloupkaM.Y.HutchinsonB.J.Abreu-GroboisF.A.MortimerJ.A.SeminoffJ.A.AmorochoD.BjorndalK.A.BourjeaJ.BowenB.W.DuenasR.B.CasaleP.ChoudhuryB.C.CostaA.DuttonP.H.FallabrinoA.FinkbeinerE.M.GirardA.GirondotM.HamannM.HurleyB.J.Lopez-MendilaharsuM.MarcovaldiM.A.MusickJ.A.NelR.PilcherN.J.TroengS.WitheringtonB.MastR.B. (2011): Global conservation priorities for marine turtles. Plos One 6.

WittM.J.PenroseR.GodleyB.J. (2007): Spatio-temporal patterns of juvenile marine turtle occurrence in waters of the European continental shelf. Mar. Biol. 151: 873-885.

ZugG.R.KalbH.J.LuzarS.J. (1997): Age and growth in wild Kemp’s ridley seaturtles Lepidochelys kempii from skeletochronological data. Biol. Conserv. 80: 261-268.


  • View in gallery

    Location of all records of the green turtle (white) and the Kemp’s ridley turtle (black) in Spanish coasts as detailed in tables 1 and 2. Circles indicate individuals without genetic data (table 1) and stars indicate individuals with genetic data (table 2). The four individuals with exact location not specified (ns) have not been mapped. Inner square shows the Canary Islands, Spanish territory in the eastern Atlantic. Map created using MAPTOOL (SEATURTLE.ORG Maptool, 2002).

  • View in gallery

    Dorsal view of the Lepidochelys kempii individual found in the Cadiz Bay (05/09/2005) showing an abnormal number of seven dorsal and six costal scutes. This figure is published in colour in the online version.

  • View in gallery

    Frequency of the green turtle CM-A8 and CM-A5 haplotypes in Mediterranean, Atlantic and Indic nesting populations. Each pie graph indicates the relative frequency of the haplotypes in a green turtle nesting populations (n = sample size). The five sampling sites of all seven green turtles with mtDNA data from this study (table 2) are represented by the black stars. Nesting population size are coded as superscripts for each population as 1: <25 females/year; 2: 25-100 females/year; 3: 100-500 females/year; 4: 500-1000 females/year; 5: >1000 females/year and n: not quantified (data from DiMatteo et al., 2009). FLO: Florida; MXC: Mexico; CR: Costa Rica; AVE: Aves; SUR: Surinam; BRZ: Brazil (Encalada et al., 1996); ASC: Ascension Island; GB: Guinea Bissau; PRI: Principe; BIO: Bioko; COR: Corisco; ST: São Tome; COM: Comoros (Formia et al., 2006); EUR: Europa; JDN: Juan de Nova; TRO: Tromelin; MOH: Mohéli; MAY: Mayotte; FAR: Farquhar; COS: Cosmoledo; ALD: Aldabra; GLO: Glorieuses; NI: Nosy Iranja (Bourjea et al., 2007); AKY: Akyatan; ALA: Alata; KAZ: Kazanli; SAM: Samandağ; YUM; Yumurtalik (Bagda et al., 2012); CYP: Cyprus (Encalada et al., 1996; Bagda et al., 2012). The Indic populations of COM, COS, ALD, GLO and NI and the Turkish populations of AKY, ALA, KAZ, SAM and YUM are represented each one by a single pie graph due to the geographical proximity between them and considering that CM-A8 and CM-A5 were absent from these populations. Map created using MAPTOOL (SEATURTLE.ORG Maptool, 2002).

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 20 20 7
Full Text Views 13 13 13
PDF Downloads 2 2 2
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0