Recent species in old Islands: the origin of introduced populations of Litoria aurea (Anura: Hylidae) in New Caledonia and Wallis

in Amphibia-Reptilia
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

New Caledonia is a megadiverse tropical island in the southwest Pacific, however, inhabited by only one species of amphibian, Litoria aurea (Hylidae). We used both molecular (CO1 and ND4 gene sequencing) and morphometric data to explore its geographical origin and timing of colonisation. We tested whether this species arrived through transoceanic dispersal before human arrival in the island, or recently through anthropogenic introduction. We found a weak phylogeographical structure within this species, and lower haplotype diversity in New Zealand, New Caledonia and Wallis compared to Australia. No significant genetic differentiation was found between pairs of populations in New Caledonia and Wallis, or between pairs of population from these two islands. We observed a high level of morphometric differentiation between Australian and island populations, and a low level of morphometric differentiation between island populations. Our results support an Australian origin for insular frogs. The possibility of a trans-marine dispersal from Australia to New Caledonia and/or Wallis in-between the Eocene and the Pleistocene cannot be favoured, given the low level of genetic differentiation. Our results are consistent with a recent human introduction, most likely during European times. Our data support the historical absence of amphibians in the old island New Caledonia, and is consistent with the new biogeographical paradigm that this island was totally re-colonized after emergence in Eocene. More studies are necessary to explain the success of this frog in oceanic islands, where it is widespread and abundant, compared to Australia, where it is declining.

Recent species in old Islands: the origin of introduced populations of Litoria aurea (Anura: Hylidae) in New Caledonia and Wallis

in Amphibia-Reptilia

Sections

References

AdlerG.H.LevinsR. (1994): The island syndrome in rodent populations. Q. Rev. Biol. 69: 473-490.

BalkeM.WewalkaG.AlarieY.RiberaI. (2007): Molecular phylogeny of pacific island Colymbetinae: radiation of New Caledonian and Fijian species (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae). Zool. Scr. 36: 173-200.

BandeltH.J.ForsterP.RohlA. (1999): Median-joining networks for inferring intraspecific phylogenies. Mol. Biol. Evol. 16: 37-48.

BartishI.V.SwensonU.MunzingerJ.AnderbergA.A. (2005): Phylogenetic relationships among New Caledonian Sapotaceae (Ericales): Molecular evidence for generic polyphyly and repeated dispersal. Am. J. Bot. 92: 667-673.

BauerA.M.JackmanT.R.SadlierR.A.WhitakerA.H. (2012): Revision of the giant geckos of New Caledonia (Reptilia: Diplodactylidae: Rhacodactylus). Zootaxa 3404: 1-52.

BishopP.J. (2008): Bell frog populations in New Zealand – good news or bad news? Aust. Zool. 34: 408-413.

BurnsE.L.CraynD.A. (2006): Phylogenetics and evolution of bell frogs (Litoria aurea species-group, Anura: Hylidae) based on mitochondrial ND4 sequences. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 39: 573-579.

BurnsE.L.EldridgeM.D.B.CraynD.M.HouldenB.A. (2007): Low phylogeographic structure in a wide spread endangered Australian frog Litoria aurea (Anura: Hylidae). Conserv. Genet. 8: 17-32.

BurnsE.L.EldridgeM.D.B.HouldenB.A. (2004): Microsatellite variation and population structure in a declining Australian hylid Litoria aurea. Mol. Ecol. 13: 1745-1757.

CarlquistS. (1974): Island Biology. Columbia University PressNew York, London.

ChazeauJ. (1993): Research on New Caledonian terrestrial fauna: achievements and prospects. Biodiversity Lett. 1: 123-129.

DarlingtonP.J. (1957): Zoogeography: The Geographical Distribution of Animals. Wiley & Chapman & HallNew York & London.

DarwinC. (1859): On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life1st Edition. John MurrayLondon.

DiamondJ. (1984): Biogeographic mosaics in the Pacific. Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Spec. Publ. 72: 1-14.

DuellmanW.E.TruebL. (1985): Biology of Amphibians. McGraw-HillNew York.

ExcoffierL.LavalG.SchneiderS. (2005): Arlequin (version 3.0): An integrated software package for population genetics data analysis. Evol. Bioinf. 1: 47-50.

FuY.X. (1997): Statistical tests of neutrality of mutations against population growth, hitchhiking and background selection. Genetics 147: 915-925.

GastonK.J. (2000): Global patterns in biodiversity. Nature 405: 220-227.

GillB.J. (1995): Notes on the land reptiles of Wallis and Futuna, south-west Pacific. Rec. Auckland Inst. Mus. 32: 55-61.

GoldingayR.L.NewellD.A. (2005): Population estimation of the green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea at Port Kembla. Aust. Zool. 33: 210-216.

GrandcolasP.MurienneJ.RobillardT.Desutter-GrandcolasL.JourdanH.GuilbertE.DeharvengL. (2008): New Caledonia: A very old Darwinian island? Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 363: 3309-3317.

GrandcolasP.NattierR.TrewickS.A. (2014): Relict species: a relict concept? Trends Ecol. Evol. 29: 655-663.

Grant-MackieJ.A.BauerA.M.TylerM.J. (2003): Stratigraphy and herpetofauna of Mé Auré Cave (Site WMD007), Moindou, New Caledonia. Cah. Archéol. Nouvelle-Calédonie 15: 295-306.

Grant-MackieJ.A.SandC.ValentinF.FitzgeraldB.M.de ForgesB.R. (2013): Human cultural and related remains from Mé Auré Cave (site WMD 007), Moindou, New Caledonia. J. Pac. Archaeol. 4: 32-49.

GressittJ. (1956): Some distribution patterns of Pacific island faunae. Syst. Zool. 5: 11-32.

GressittJ. (1960): The development of insect faunae in Oceania. In: Proceedings of the Centuary and Bicentuary Congress of Biology Singapore 2-9 December 1958 p. 58-62. Purchon R.D. Ed. Singapore and London University of Malaya Press and Oxford University Press.

HandS.J.Grant-MackieJ.A. (2012): Late-Holocene bats of Me Aure Cave, New Caledonia: Evidence of human consumption and a new species record from the recent past. Holocene 22: 79-90.

HeinickeM.P.DuellmanW.E.HedgesS.B. (2007): Major Caribbean and Central American frog faunas originated by ancient oceanic dispersal. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104: 10092-10097.

HeroJ.M.GillespieG.CoggerH.LemckertF.RobertsonP. (2004): Litoria aurea. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 22 November 2013.

HorrocksM.Grant-MackieJ.Matisoo-SmithE. (2008): Introduced taro (Colocasia esculenta) and yams (Dioscorea spp.) in Podtanean (2700e1800 years BP) deposits from Mé Auré Cave (WMD007), Moindou, New Caledonia. J. Archaeol. Sci. 35: 169-180.

KrausF. (2009): Alien Reptiles and Amphibians: A Scientific Compendium and Analysis. Springer.

LebergP.L. (2002): Estimating allelic richness: Effects of sample size and bottlenecks. Mol. Ecol. 11: 2445-2449.

LemireC. (1884): Voyage à pied en Nouvelle-Caléconie et description des Nouvelles-Hébrides. Challamel AinéParis.

LibradoP.RozasJ. (2009): DnaSP v5: a software for comprehensive analysis of DNA polymorphism data. Bioinformatics 25: 1451-1452.

ListerA.M. (1989): Rapid dwarfing of red deer on Jersey in the last interglacial. Nature 342: 539-542.

LososJ.B.SchoenerT.W.WarheitK.I.CreerD. (2001): Experimental studies of adaptive differentiation in Bahamian Anolis lizards. Genetica 112: 399-415.

McCannC. (1961): The introduced frogs of New Zealand. Tuatara 8: 107-120.

MeaseyG.J.VencesM.DrewesR.C.ChiariY.MeloM.BourlesB. (2007): Freshwater paths across the ocean: molecular phylogeny of the frog Ptychadena newtoni gives insights into amphibian colonization of oceanic islands. J. Biogeogr. 34: 7-20.

MedwayL.MarshallA.G. (1975): Terrestrial vertebrates of New-Hebrides – origin and distribution. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 272: 423-465.

MontesinosR.da SilvaH.R.Gomes de CarvalhoA.L. (2012): The ‘island rule’ acting on anuran populations (Bufonidae: Rhinella ornata) of the Southern Hemisphere. Biotropica 44: 506-511.

MoratP.JaffréT.VeillonJ.M.MacKeeH.S. (1986): Affinités floristiques et considérations sur l’origine des maquis miniers de la Nouvelle-Calédonie. Adansonia 2: 133-182.

MurienneJ.GrandcolasP.PiulachsM.D.BellesX.D’HaeseC.LegendreF.PellensR.GuilbertE. (2005): Evolution on a shaky piece of Gondwana: is local endemism recent in New Caledonia? Cladistics 21: 2-7.

MurienneJ.GuilbertE.GrandcolasP. (2009): Species’ diversity in the New Caledonian endemic genera Cephalidiosus and Nobarnus (Insecta: Heteroptera: Tingidae), an approach using phylogeny and species’ distribution modelling. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 97: 177-184.

MurienneJ.PellensR.BudinoffR.B.WheelerW.C.GrandcolasP. (2008): Phylogenetic analysis of the endemic New Caledonian cockroach Lauraesilpha. Testing competing hypotheses of diversification. Cladistics 24: 802-812.

NattierR.GrandcolasP.EliasM.Desutter-GrandcolasL.JourdanH.CoulouxA.RobillardT. (2012): Secondary sympatry caused by range expansion informs on the dynamics of microendemism in a biodiversity hotspot. PloS One 7: e48047.

NattierR.RobillardT.Desutter-GrandcolasL.CoulouxA.GrandcolasP. (2011): Older than New Caledonia emergence? A molecular phylogenetic study of the eneopterine crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea). J. Biogeogr. 38: 2195-2209.

NorusisM.J. (1992): SPSS for Windows. Professional Statistics. Release 5. SPSS Inc.Chicago.

NPWS [NSW national Parks and Wildlife Service] N.N.n.P.a.W. (2008): Ecology and conservation of Australian bell frogs. Aust. Zool. 34: i-ii 235-458.

PellensR.GrandcolasP. (2010): Conservation and management of the biodiversity in a hotspot characterized by short range endemism and rarity: the challenge of New Caledonia. In: Biodiversity Hotspots p.  139-151. RescignoV.MalettaS. Eds Nova Science PublishersHauppauge, NY.

PenmanT.D.MuirG.W.MagareyE.R.BurnsE.L. (2008): Impact of a chytrid-related mortality event on a population of the green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea. Aust. Zool. 34: 314-318.

PykeG.H.WhiteA.W. (1996): Habitat requirements for the green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea (Anura: Hylidae). Aust. Zool. 30: 224-232.

PykeG.H.WhiteA.W.BishopP.J.WaldmanB. (2002): Habitat-use by the Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea in Australia and New Zealand. Aust. Zool. 32: 12-31.

RaiaP.GuarinoF.M.TuranoM.PoleseG.RippaD.CarotenutoF.MontiD.M.CardiM.FulgioneD. (2010): The blue lizard spandrel and the island syndrome. BMC Evol. Biol. 10: 1-16.

Ramos-OnsinsS.E.RozasJ. (2002): Statistical properties of new neutrality tests against population growth. Mol. Biol. Evol. 19: 2092-2100.

RavenP.H. (1979): Plate tectonics and southern hemisphere biogeography. In: Tropical Botany p.  3-24. LarsenK.Holm-NielsenL.B. Eds Academic PressLondon.

RavenP.H.AxelrodD.I. (1972): Plate tectonics and australasian paleobiogeography. Science 176: 1379-1386.

RaymondM.RoussetF. (1995): An exact test for population differentiation. Evolution 49: 1280-1283.

SarasinF. (1925): Über die Tiergeschichte der Länder des Südwestlichen Pazifischen Ozeans auf Grund von Forschungen in Neu-Caledonien und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. In: Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonien und auf den Loyalty-Inseln // Recherches scientifiques en Nouvelle-Calédonie et aux Îles Loyalty p.  1-177. SarasinF.RouxJ. Eds C.W. Kreidel’s VerlagBerlin.

ThomsonG.M. (1922): The Naturalisation of Animals and Plants in New Zealand. Cambridge University PressCambridge.

TylerM.J. (1979): The introduction and current distribution in the New Hebrides of the Australian hylid frog Litoria aurea. Copeia 1979: 355-356.

van de MortelT.GoldingayR. (1998): Population assessment of the endangered green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea at Port Kembla, New South Wales. Aust. Zool. 30: 398-404.

VörösJ.MitchellA.WaldmanB.GoldstienS.GemmellN.J. (2008): Crossing the Tasman Sea: inferring the introduction history of Litoria aurea and Litoria raniformis (Anura: Hylidae) from Australia into New Zealand. Aust. Ecol. 33: 623-629.

WhiteA.W.PykeG.H. (1996): Distribution and conservation status of the Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea in New South Wales. Aust. Zool. 30: 177-189.

WuZ.LiY.MurrayB.R. (2006): Insular shifts in body size of rice frogs in the Zhoushan Archipelago, China. J. Anim. Ecol. 75: 1071-1080.

Figures

  • View in gallery

    Map showing the geographical origin of the samples used in this study.

  • View in gallery

    Minimum spanning network depicting relationships among CO1 (top) and ND4 (bottom) Litoria aurea haplotypes. The size of the circle is proportional to the haplotype frequency, and the length of the connecting line is proportional to the number of mutations. Colours refer to distinct Australian or New Zealand regions, and to distinct oceanic islands (New Caledonia, Wallis and Santo).

  • View in gallery

    Rarefaction curves plotting the number of individuals sampled against the expected number of mitochondrial haplotypes (calculated using the ANALYTIC RAREFACTATION.1.4 software available at the UGA Stratigraphy Lab website – http://www.uga.edu/~strata/software/). 95% confident limits are shown.

  • View in gallery

    UPGMA dendrograms based upon the percentage of measurements significantly different between pairs of Litoria aurea populations (according to Scheffé post-hoc analyses). (a) Comparison between Australia, New Caledonia and Wallis populations; (b) comparison between New Caledonian populations; (c) comparison between Wallis populations. AUS, Australia; NC, New Caledonia; W, Wallis; Aka, Aka-aka; Kou, Koumac; Lik, Liku; Kik, Lake Kikila; Nak, Nakutakoin; Nou, Noumea; Poi, Poingam; Pou, Pouembout; Sar, Sarraméa; Thi, Thio.

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 47 47 16
Full Text Views 98 98 65
PDF Downloads 6 6 3
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0