In some environments prevailing conditions are unpredictable, thus anuran species use bet-hedging strategies and produce eggs of varied sizes. We investigated whether four species of Physalaemus (two from open, two from forest habitats) exhibit bet-hedging strategies, and if intra-clutch variation in egg size is greater for species that breed in the more unpredictable ponds of open habitats. All species studied adopted the bet-hedging strategy, with intra-clutch variation in egg size regardless of the environment; however, we found greater intra-clutch variation in the two species from open areas. The lower variation in egg-size found within forest habitats may be explained by the more stable environments that forest ponds provide for anuran eggs/embryos. Future studies in a phylogenetic context are needed to confirm the patterns detected here.
FrostD.R. (2017): Amphibian species of the world: an online reference. Version 6.0 (23 January 2017). Electronic database accessible at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html. American Museum of Natural History New York USA.
Redescription of Physalaemus spiniger (Anura: Leptodactylidae) and description of two new reproductive modes.
Phylogeny of frogs from the genus Physalaemus (Anura, Leptodactylidae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.92:
Breeding activity patterns, reproductive modes, and habitat use by anurans (Amphibia) in a seasonal environment in the Pantanal, Brazil.
Reproductive biology of an endemic Physalaemus of the Brazilian Atlantic forest and the trade-off between clutch and egg size in terrestrial breeders of the P. signifer group.