In this study, we describe the intra- and interspecific anatomical variations of cloacal and related muscles of male and female genitalia in species of five iguanian genera (three liolemid: Ctenoblepharys, Liolaemus, and Phymaturus plus Diplolaemusleopardinus and Tropidurusmelanopleurus as outgroups). We found variations (seventeen characters) in topology, origin and insertion areas, tendon morphology and size of the musculature of this region. We also describe the variations of hemipeneal morphology, which is especially notable for the hemipenis of C. adspersa, D. leopardinus, and T. melanopleurus, as this is first time they are described in the literature. Among the most significant findings are the identification of three new muscles, two of them inserted on the roof of the cloacal chamber (anterior and posterior cloacal retractor) and the third inserted superficially in the floor of the cloaca, just before anterior to the precloacal glands row (superficialis cloacalis retractor). We report sexual dimorphism in seven muscle characters. Musculature related to hemiclitoris is reduced in proportion to its size in comparison to the degree of development of male genitalia and associated musculature. The evolution of characters was traced on the known phylogenetic hypotheses of relationships among families. Characters taken from the cloacal/genital myology bring similar support to the liolaemid tree even rooting the analysis using different outgroups. In addition, a phylogenetic study using only myological characters was performed. In this case, C. adspersa was found to be more related to Liolaemus species instead of being basal to Liolaemus plus Phymaturus.
Muscle and tendon contributions to force, work, and elastic energy savings: a comparative perspective.
Exercise and Sport Science Reviews. The American College of Sports Medicine28 (3):
BoninoM.Moreno AzocarD.TulliM.AbdalaC.PerottiM.CruzF. (2011):
Running in cold weather: morphology, thermal biology, and performance in the southernmost lizard clade in the world (Liolaemus lineomaculatus section: Liolaemini: Iguania).
Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology315:
Conspecific odor detection by the male broad headed skink, Eumeceslaticeps: effects of sex and site of odor source and of male reproductive condition.
J. Exp. Zool.230 (2):
Contribution à la morphologie comparée du cloaque et des glandes épidermoïdes de la región cloacale chez les lépidosauriens.
Mémoires Du Muséum National d’histoire Naturelle Série A: Zoologie33:
Assembling the squamate tree of life: perspectives from the phenotype and the fossil record.
Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History53:
On the evolution and diversification of an Andean clade of reptiles: combining morphology and DNA sequences of the palluma group (Liolaemidae: Phymaturus).
J. Linn. Soc. London Zool.176 (3):
A molecular phylogeny of the lizard genus Phymaturus (Squamata, Liolaemini): implications for species diversity and historical biogeography of southern South America.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.66 (3):
The Gross anatomy of the original and regenerated tail in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis).
Phylogenetic relationships within Iguanidae inferred using molecular and morphological data and a phylogenetic taxonomy of iguanian lizards.
Resolving the phylogeny of lizards and snakes (Squamata) with extensive sampling of genes and species.
Combining phylogenomic and supermatrix approaches, and a time-calibrated phylogeny for squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) based on 52 genes and 4162 species.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.94: