Release calls of Moroccan spadefoot toad, Pelobates varaldii (Anura, Pelobatidae)

in Amphibia-Reptilia
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Release calls of Pelobates varaldii Pasteur and Bons (1959) are described quantitatively based on airborne recordings obtained from 4 males and 12 females from a population of the extreme north of its range. The calls are sequences of pulsed notes with a variable number of pulses per note. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the acoustic repertoire of this endemic endangered species from Morocco.

Release calls of Moroccan spadefoot toad, Pelobates varaldii (Anura, Pelobatidae)

in Amphibia-Reptilia



AlonsoR.RodríguezA.MárquezR. (2007): Sound guide of the amphibians from Cuba. ALOSA sons de la natura Audio CD & booklet 46 pp.

AndreoneF.PiazzaR. (1990): A bioacoustic study on Pelobates fuscus insubricus (Amphibia, Pelobatidae). Ital. J. Zool. 57: 341-349.

Audacity Team (2010): Audacity (Version 1.3.12) [Computer software]. Retrieved 2010 from

Bioacoustics Research Program (2011): Raven Pro: Interactive Sound Analysis Software (Version 1.4) [Computer software]. Ithaca NY: The Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Available from

BrownL.E.LittlejohnM.J. (1972): Male release call in the Bufo americanus group. In: Evolution in the Genus Bufo p. 310-323. BlairW.F. Ed. University of Texas PressAustin and London.

BusackS.D.MaxsonL.R.WilsonM.A. (1985): Pelobates varaldii (Anura: Pelobatidae): a morphologically conservative species. Copeia 1985: 107-112.

DeganiG. (2015): The habitats, burrowing behavior, physiology adaptation and life cycle of spadefoot toads (Pelobates syriacus, Boettger, 1869) at the southern limit of its distribution in Israel. Open J. Anim. Sci. 5: 249-257.

EstebanM.Sánchez-HerráizM.J.BarbadilloL.J.CastanetJ.MárquezR. (2002): Effects of age, size and temperature on the advertisement calls of two Spanish populations of Pelodytes punctatus. Amphibia-Reptilia 23: 249-258.

GerhardtH.C. (1991): Female mate choice in tree frogs: static and dynamic acoustic criteria. Anim. Behav. 42: 615-635.

GerhardtH.C.HuberF. (2002): Acoustic Communication in Insects and Anurans: Common Problems and Diverse Solutions. University of Chicago Press.

HaddadC.F.B.GiovanelliJ.G.R.GiassonL.O.M.ToledoL.F. (2005): Sound Guide of the Atlantic Rain Forest Anurans. Lab. Herpetologia, UNESPRio Claro, SP.

HammerØ.HarperD.A.T.RyanP.D. (2001): PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4 (1): 9.

KwetA.MárquezR. (2010): Sound Guide of the Calls of Frogs and Toads From Southern Brazil and Uruguay. Alosa Sons de la Natura Barcelona Spain. Fonoteca Zoológica (Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC)Madrid, Spain.

LizanaM.MárquezR.Martín-SánchezR. (1994): Reproductive biology of Pelobates cultripes (Anura: Pelobatidae) in central Spain. J. Herpetol. 28: 19-27.

LlusiaD.MárquezR.BeltránJ.F.BenitezM.Do AmaralJ.P. (2013): Calling behaviour under climate change: geographical and seasonal variation of calling temperatures in ectotherms. Glob. Change Biol. 19: 2655-2674.

MárquezR.De la RivaI.BoschJ.MatheuE. (2002): Sounds of Frogs and Toads of Bolivia. AlosaBarcelona.

MüllerB. (1984): Bio-akustische und endokrinologische Untersuchungen an der Knoblauchkröte Pelobates fuscus fuscus (Laurenti, 1768) (Salientia: Pelobatidae). Salamandra 20: 121-142.

NyströmP.BirkedalL.DahlbergC.BrönmarkC. (2002): The declining spadefoot toad Pelobates fuscus: calling site choice and conservation. Ecography 25: 488-498.

ObristM.K.PavanG.SueurJ.RiedeK.LlusiaD.MárquezR. (2010): Bioacoustics approaches in biodiversity inventories. Abc Taxa 8: 68-99.

SalvadorA.Donaire-BarrosoD.SlimaniT.El MoudenE.H.GeniezP. (2006): Pelobates varaldii. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. Downloaded on 17 nov. 2017.

SchneiderH. (1966): Die Paarungsrufe einheimischer froschlurche (Discoglossidae, Pelobatidae, Bufonidae, Hylidae). Z. Morphol. Okol. Tiere 57: 119-136.

SeglieD.GaunaA.GiacomaC. (2013): Description of the male advertisement call of Pelobates fuscus insubricus (Anura, Pelobatidae), with general notes on its acoustic repertoire. Bull. Soc. Herpetol. France 145: 61-72.

SolísG.EekhoutX.MárquezR. (2006): “Fonoteca Zoologica (”: the web-based animal sound library of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (Madrid), a resource for the study of anuran sounds. In: Herpetologia Bonnensis II. Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Societas Europaea Herpetologica p. 171-174. VencesM.KöhlerJ.ZieglerT.BöhmeW. Eds.

StănescuF.FortiL.R.CogălniceanuD.MárquezR. (2018): Release and distress calls in European spadefoot toads genus Pelobates. Bioacoustics. DOI:10.1080/09524622.2018.1428116.

SullivanB.K.WagnerW.E. Jr. (1988): Variation in advertisement and release calls, and social influences on calling behavior in the gulf coast toad (Bufo valliceps). Copeia 1988: 1014-1020.

SullivanB.K. (1992): Sexual selection and calling behavior in the American toad (Bufo americanus). Copeia 1992: 1-7.

Ten HagenL.RodríguezA.MenkeN.GöckingC.BispingM.FrommoltK.H.ZieglerT.BonkowskiM.VencesM. (2016): Vocalizations in juvenile anurans: common spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus) regularly emit calls before sexual maturity. Sci. Nat. 103: 75.

ToledoL.F.HaddadC.F.B. (2009): Defensive vocalizations of Neotropical anurans. South Am. J. Herpetol. 4: 25-42.

ToledoL.F.TippC.MárquezR. (2015a): The value of audiovisual archives. Science 347 (6221): 484.

ToledoL.F.MartinsI.A.BruschiD.P.PassosM.A.AlexandreC.HaddadC.F. (2015b): The anuran calling repertoire in the light of social context. Acta Ethol. 18: 87-99.

Van GelderJ.J.HoedemaekersH.C.M. (1971): Sound activity and migration during the breeding period of Rana temporaria L., R. arvalis Nilsson, Pelobates fuscus Laur. and Rana esculenta L. J. Anim. Ecol. 40: 559-568.

VencesM.GlawF.MarquezR. (2006): The calls of the frogs of Madagascar. CD Audio and booklet. Fonoteca Zoológica and Alosa Barcelona.

YegiasaryanE.M. (2014): Bioacoustical analysis of armenian amphibians’ mating calls. Ann. Agrar. Sci. 8: 113-117.


  • View in gallery

    (A), (B) and (C) Release calls of an adult female individual (weight 30 g, SVL 6.6 cm). (A) Eight second sequence of release calls including a section of high intensity calling in the middle. Above: oscillogram, Below: Audiospectrogram (FFT 1040). (B) Oscillogram and Audiospectrogram (FFT 1040) of a sequence of two release calls (not high intensity) of the same individual. (C) Oscillogram and Audiospectrogram (FFT 1040) of a sequence of two release release calls (high intensity) of the same individual. D, E and F, Release calls of an adult male individual (weight 21.4 g, SVL 5.8 cm). (D) Eight second sequence of release calls, (E) Oscillogram and Audiospectrogram (FFT 1040) of a sequence of two release calls (not high intensity) of the individual. (F) Oscillogram and Audiospectrogram (FFT 1040) of a sequence of two release calls (high intensity) of the same individual.

  • View in gallery

    Body and acoustic parameters of the recorded individuals. Acoustic parameters: mean, Standard Deviation (in parenthesis), range, CVb Coefficient of Variation between individuals in % (measured as the variation of the mean values of each individual). * indicate significantly different values for males and females (P<0.05. Mann-Whitney U test).


Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 35 35 13
Full Text Views 65 65 44
PDF Downloads 6 6 2
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0