Al-Manṣūr bi-Llāh’s controversy with Twelver Šīʿites concerning the occultation of the Imam in his Kitāb al-ʿIqd al-ṯamīn

in Arabica
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This article tackles one of the main points of dissension between the Zaydiyya and the Imāmiyya, notably, the repudiation of the former to the chiliastic concept of the occultation of the Imam (ġayba). It will address the exchange of polemics between both groups, which goes back to the 3rd/9th century. Its main focus, however, is the refutation conjured by the Yemeni Imam al-Manṣūr bi-Llāh ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḥamza (d. 614/1217).

Al-Manṣūr bi-Llāh’s controversy with Twelver Šīʿites concerning the occultation of the Imam in his Kitāb al-ʿIqd al-ṯamīn

in Arabica




See on him D. Sourdel“al-Hādī ila ’l-Ḥaḳḳ”EI²; Zayd Tayyārāt; A.B.D.R. Eagle “al-Hadī Yaḥyā b. al-Ḥusayn b. al-Qāsim (245-298/859-911): A Biographical Introduction and the Background and Significance of his Imamate” New Arabian Studies 2 (1994) p. 103-22.


ZaydTayyārāt p. 157 159 161; ʿAbd al-Salām b. ʿAbbās al-Wağīh Aʿlām al-muʾallifīn al-zaydiyya Beirut IZbACF 1999 p. 578; G.R. Smith The Ayyūbids and the Early Rasūlids in the Yemen (567-694/1173-1295) London Gibb Memorial Trust 1978 II p. 80; al-Šāmī Taʾrīḫ al-Yaman al-fikrī III p. 50 who calls it a daʿwa ḫāṣṣa; al-Akwaʿ Hiğar al-ʿilm III p. 1286 regards it as an activist claim for the cause of commanding right and forbidding wrong i.e.daʿwat iḥtisāb.


Wilferd Madelung“A Muṭarrifī Manuscript”Proceedings of the VIth Congress of Arabic and Islamic Studies (Visby-Stockholm 1972)Leiden E.J. Brill 1975 p. 75-83; Zayd Tayyārāt p. 64-104; al-Šāmī Taʾrīḫ al-Yaman al-fikrī III p. 83-118.


See for Kawkabān SmithThe Ayyūbids p. 168-9.


W. Madelung“Badāʾ”EIr; I. Goldzieher/A.S. Tritton “Badāʾ” EI²; McDermott Theology p. 329-38.


W. Madelung“al-Rassī, al-Ḳāsim b. Ibrāhīm”EI².


ModaressiCrisis and Consolidation p. 169-244.


Cf. Anṣārī“Zaydiyya u manābiʿ-yi maktūb-i Imāmiyya” p. 159-61.


Al-AšʿarīMaqālāt p. 67; Madelung Der Imam al-Qāsim p. 84.


ZaydTayyārāt p. 23-4.


ZaydTayyārāt p. 162-72.


Cf. Said Amir Arjomand“The Consolation of Theology: Absence of the Imam and Transition from Chiliasm to Law in Shiʿism”The Journal of Religion76 (1996) p. 548-71.


See on his book cf. Arjomand“The Consolation of Theology” p. 564-8.


Tarif KhalidiThe Qurʾan: A New TranslationNew YorkViking2008 p. 273. See Ibn Diʿṯam al-Sīra l-manṣūriyya I p. 173; al-Manṣūr bi-Llāh cites the same Qurʾānic verse in Mağmūʿ mukātabāt al-Imām ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḥamza ed. ʿAbd al-Salām b. ʿAbbās al-Wağīh Sanaa IZbACF 2008 p. 238-9 and 309.

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