From the Medieval ḫarğāt to Contemporary Songs: Patterns of Codeswitching Involving Arabic

in Arabica
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Abstract

This paper seeks to use evidence from contemporary language use to shed light on that of an earlier period. It examines a set of ḫarğāt, the closing sections of medieval Andalusian muwaššaḥ poems, which exhibit codeswitching between colloquial Andalusian Arabic and Romance, and compares the patterns of switching seen there with those used in some contemporary popular songs, in particular the Arabic-French switching used in the rai lyrics of North Africa. On the basis of the parallels and contrasts observed, some remarks are made about what the language of these ḫarğāt suggests about their origins and authors.

From the Medieval ḫarğāt to Contemporary Songs: Patterns of Codeswitching Involving Arabic

in Arabica

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References

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Joan A. Argenter“Codeswitching and Dialogism: Verbal Practices among Catalan Jews in the Middle Ages”Language in Society30 (2001) p. 377-402.

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19

Otto ZwartjesThe Andalusian Xarja-s: Poetry at the Crossroads of Two Systems?Doctoral ThesisUniversity of Nijmegen1995 p. 176.

20

Ibid. p. 205.

21

Samuel Armistead“Kharjas and Vilancicos”Journal of Arabic Literature34 (2003) p. 3-19.

22

See for instance Tova Rosen“On Tongues Being Bound and Let Loose: Women in Medieval Hebrew Literature”Prooftexts8 (1988) p. 67-87.

23

Ramón Menéndez Pidal“Cantos románicos andalusíes, continuadores de una lírica latina vulgar”Boletín de la Real Academia Española31 (1951) p. 187-270.

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Guillermo E. Hernández“Some Jarcha Antecedents in Latin Inscriptions”Hispanic Review57 (1989) p. 198-202.

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Samuel Armistead and James T. Monroe“Beached Whales and Roaring Mice: Additional Remarks on Hispano-Arabic Strophic Poetry”La Corónica13 (1985) p. 206-42.

27

Richard Hitchcock“The ‘Kharjas’ as Early Romance Lyrics: A Review”The Modern Language Review75 (1980) p. 481-91.

28

Francisco A. Marcos-Marín“Lecturas y lecciones de las jarchas”Al-Andalus Maghreb5 (1998) p. 75-85; “Forma y contenido en las cantigas de amigo y las jarchas: La nueva perspectiva” in Estudois Galegos Medievais ed. A. Cortijo Ocaña Giorgio Perissinotto and H. L. Sharrer Santa Barbara Centro de Estudios Galegos University of California 2001 p. 61-96.

29

Alan Jones“Eppur si muove”La Corónica12 (1983) p. 46.

30

Hitchcock“The ‘Kharjas’ ” p. 484.

31

Richard Hitchcock“The Interpretation of Romance Words in Arabic Texts: Theory and Practice”La Corónica13 (1984) p. 243.

32

Hitchcock“The ‘Kharjas’ ” p. 484.

33

Marcos-Marin“Forma y contenido” p. 62.

34

Ibid. p. 62; Tova Rosen “The Muwashshah” in The Literature of al-Andalus ed. María Rosa Menocal Raymond P. Scheindlin and Michael Sells Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2006 p. 169.

35

ZwartjesThe Andalusian Xarja-s p. 214.

36

Jareer Abu Haidar“The Kharja of the Muwashshah in a New Light”Journal of Arabic Literature9 (1978) p. 1-13; Marcos-Marin “Forma y contenido”.

38

Abdelali Bentahila and Eirlys E. Davies“Language Mixing in Rai Music: Localization or Globalization?,” Language and Communication22 (2002) p. 187-207; Eirlys E. Davies and Abdelali Bentahila “Codeswitching and the Globalization of Popular Music: The Case of North African Rai and Rap” Multilingua 25 (2006) p. 367-92; “Codeswitching as a Poetic Device: Examples from Rai Lyrics” Language and Communication 28 (2008) p. 1-20; and “Translation and Codeswitching in the Lyrics of Bilingual Popular Songs” The Translator 14 (2008) p. 247-72.

39

Federico CorrienteA Dictionary of Andalusi ArabicLeidenBrill1997.

40

See for instance Jones“Eppur si muove” p. 68 note 25 and Federico Corriente “Codeswitching and Code Mixing in Ibn Quzman Revisited” in Lenguas in diálogo: El iberorromance y su diversidad linguistica y literaria: Ensayos en homenaje a Georg Bossong ed. Hans-Jörg Döhla Raquel Montero Muñoz and Francisco Báez de Aguilar Madrid Iberoamericana p. 78.

41

See for instance Abdelali BentahilaLanguage Attitudes among Arabic-French Bilinguals in MoroccoClevedonMultilingual Matters1983.

42

Abdelali Bentahila and Eirlys E. Davies“The Syntax of Arabic-French Codeswitching”Lingua59 (1983) p. 301-30; “Constraints on Codeswitching: A Look beyond Grammar” Papers from the Symposium on Codeswitching in Bilingual Studies: Theory Significance and PerspectivesBarcelona March 1991 Strasbourg European Science Foundation Network on Codeswitching and Language Contact p. 369-403; “Codeswitching and Language Dominance” in Cognitive Processing in Bilinguals ed. Richard J. Harris Amsterdam Elsevier 1992 p. 443-58; “Patterns of Codeswitching and Patterns of Language contact” Lingua 96 (1995) p. 75-93; “Two Languages Three Varieties: Codeswitching Patterns of Bilingual Children” in The Cross-linguistic Study of Bilingual Development ed. Guus Extra and Ludo Verhoeven Amsterdam North Holland (« Publications of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences ») 1995 p. 113-28; “Codeswitching: An Unequal partnership?” in Codeswitching Worldwide ed. Rodolfo Jacobson Berlin and New York Mouton De Gruyter (« Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs ») 1998 p. 25-49.

44

Rodolfo Jacobson“Language Alternation: The Third Kind of Codeswitching Mechanism” in Codeswitching Worldwide IIed. Rodolfo Jacobson Berlin and New York Mouton De Gruyter (« Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs » 126) 2001 p. 59-72.

46

Eirlys E. Davies and Abdelali Bentahila“On Mother and Other Tongues: The Notion of Possession of a Language”Lingua78 (1989) p. 155-81.

48

ZwartjesThe Andalusian Xarja-s p. 236.

50

Samuel Armistead and James T. Monroe“Albas, Mammas and Codeswitching in the Kharjas: A Reply to Keith Whinnom”La Corónica11 (1983) p. 174-207.

51

Richard Hitchcock“Sobre la ‘mamá’ en las jarchas”Journal of Hispanic Philology2 (1978) p. 1-9.

54

Carol Myers-Scotton“Comparing Codeswitching and Borrowing” in Codeswitchinged. Carol Eastman Clevedon Multilingual Matters 1992 p. 19-39.

55

Marjolein Gysels“French in Urban Lubumbashi Swahili: Codeswitching, Borrowing, or Both?” in Codeswitchinged. Carol Eastman Clevedon Multilingual Matters 1992 p. 41-55.

56

Pedro Martin Baños“El Enigma de las Jarchas”Per Abbat: Boletín Filológico de Actualizacion Académica y Didáctica1 (2006) p. 15.

58

Davies and Bentahila“Codeswitching as a Poetic Device” p. 2.

59

Whinnom“The Mamma of the Kharjas” p. 14.

60

Ibid. p. 15.

61

Ibid. p. 15.

63

Leonora A. Timm“Spanish-English Codeswitching: El por qué y How not to”Romance Philology28 (1975) p. 473-82.

64

Shana Poplack“Sometimes I’ll Start a Sentence in Spanish y Termino en español: Towards a Typology of Codeswitching”Linguistics18 (1980) p. 581-618.

65

Armistead and Monroe“Albas Mammas” p. 191.

66

Gary D. Keller“The Literary Strategems Available to the Bilingual Chicano Writer” in The Identification and Analysis of Chicano Literatureed. Francisco Jiménez New York Bilingual Press 1979 p. 263-316; Schendl “ ‘To London’ ”; Davies and Bentahila “Language Mixing” “Codeswitching as a Poetic Device”.

67

Schendl“ ‘To London’ ” p. 52-3; Davies and Bentahila “Language Mixing” “Codeswitching as a Poetic Device”.

68

Schendl“ ‘To London’ ” p. 52.

69

Jones“Eppur se muove” p. 46.

70

Abu-Haidar“The Kharja” p. 7.

71

David Hanlon“A Sociolingustic View of ‘Hazl’ in the Andalusian Arabic ‘Muwashshah’ ”Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 60 (1997) p. 35-46.

72

Whinnom“The Mamma” p. 15.

73

Federico Corriente“The Behavior of Romance and Andalusian Utterances in the Kharjas under the Constraints of ‘Arud’ ” in Studies on the Muwaššah and the Kharja (Proceedings of the Exeter International Colloquium)ed. Alan Jones and Richard Hitchcock Oxford Ithaca Press 1991 p. 67.

74

Corriente“Codeswitching” p. 82 emphasis added.

75

Otto Zwartjes“La alternancia de código como recurso estilístico en las xarja-s andalusíes”La Corónica22 (1994) p. 1-51; id. The Andalusian Xarja-s; LoveSongs from Al-Andalus: HistoryStructure and Meaning of the Kharjas Leiden Brill 1997.

77

Carol Pfaff“Constraints on Language Mixing: Intrasentential Codeswitching and Borrowing in Spanish/English”Language55 (1979) p. 291-318.

78

ZwartjesThe Andalusian Xarja-s p. 257.

79

See for instance Susan Berk-Seligson“Linguistic Constraints on Intrasentential Codeswitching: A Study of Spanish-Hebrew Bilingualism”Language in Society5 (1986) p. 313-48; Eyamba Bokamba “Code-Mixing Language Variation and Linguistic Theory: Evidence from Bantu Languages” Lingua 76 (1988) p. 21-62; Bentahila and Davies “Codeswitching and Language Dominance”; Jan Blommaert “Codeswitching and the Exclusivity of Social Identities: Some Data from Campus Kiswahili” in Codeswitching ed. Carol M. Eastman Clevedon Multilingual Matters 1992 p. 57-70.

80

ZwartjesThe Andalusian Xarja-s p. 244.

81

Ibid. p. 244.

82

Ibid. p. 242-3; Zwartjes “La alternancia” p. 29-34.

83

Richard Hitchcock“Las kharajat romances: De nuevo en el banquillo” in Poesía estrófica: Actas del primer congreso internacional sobre poesía estrófica arabe y hebrea y sus paralelos romancesed. Federico Corriente and Angel Sáenz-Badillos Madrid Universidad Complutense 1991 p. 173.

84

See for instance Naima Boussofora Omar“Diglossia” in Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics Vol. 1ed. Kees Versteegh Leiden Brill 2006 p. 629-37.

85

J.A. Abu-Haidar“The Muwashshahat and the Kharjas tell their own Story”Al-Qantara26 (2005) p. 73.

87

Ismael El Outmani“El humor en la litteratura andalusi” in El humor en Españaed. Harm den Boer and Fermín Sierra Amsterdam Diálogos Hispánicos De Amsterdam 1992 p. 38.

89

Vincent Cantarino“Lyrical Traditions in Andalusian Muwaššaḥat”Comparative Literature21 (1969) p. 226.

90

Anthony P. Espósito“The Monkey in the Kharjas: Tradition and Canonicity in the Early Iberian Lyric”Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies30 (2000) p. 463-77.

92

Zwartjes“La alternancia” p. 10-1.

93

Abu-Haidar“The Muwashshahat” p. 77.

94

ZwartjesThe Andalusian Xarja-s p. 211.

95

David Wulstan“Bring on the Dancing Girls! (a Gadibus usque auroram)”Al-Masāq17 (2005) p. 221-49.

110

Federico CorrientePoesía dialectal arabe y romance en AlandalusMadridGredos1998.

115

Galmés de FuentesLas Jarchas ḫarğa 4.

121

ZwartjesThe Andalusian Jarcha-s p. 204.

122

Ibid. p. 182.

126

ZwartjesThe Andalusian Xarja-s p. 201.

127

Ibid. p. 200.

139

Pieter Muysken“Language Contact and Grammatical Coherence: Spanish and Quechua in the Wayno of Southern Peru”Papers for the Workshop on Constraints Conditions and Models European Science Foundation Network on Codeswitching and Language ContactStrasbourg European Science Foundation 1990 p. 159-88.

142

Davies and Bentahila“Codeswitching as a Poetic Device” p. 11.

149

Bentahila and Davies“Codeswitching and Language Dominance” p. 447-8.

150

Armistead“Kharjas and Vilancicos” p. 10.

155

ZwartjesThe Andalusian Xarja-s p. 200.

160

ZwartjesThe Andalusian Xarja-s p. 238.

164

Emilio García GómezLas jarchas romances de la serie arabe en su marcoMadridSociedad de Estudios y Publicaciones1965 p. 320.

167

ZwartjesThe Andalusian Xarja-s p. 202.

168

Zwartjes“La alternancia” p. 20.

177

See for instance Carol Myers-ScottonDuelling Languages: Grammatical Structures in CodeswitchingOxfordClarendon Press1993p. 151ff; Carol Myers-Scotton “The Matrix Language Frame Model: Development and Responses” in Codeswitching Worldwide II ed. Rodolfo Jacobson Berlin and New York Mouton De Gruyter (“Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs” 126) 2001 p. 57.

181

Galmés de FuentesLas jarchas ḫarğa 15.

182

ZwartjesThe Andalusian Jarcha-s p. 202.

183

Galmés de Fuentes Las jarchas ḫarğa 1.

184

Zwartjes“La alternancia”The Andalusian Xarja-s.

185

Zwartjes The Andalusian Jarcha-s p. 203.

189

Kees VersteeghThe Arabic LanguageEdinburghEdinburgh University Press2001 p. 228.

190

Zwartjes“La alternancia”The Andalusian Jarcha-s.

191

Galmés de FuentesLas jarchas ḫarğa 13.

193

ZwartjesThe Andalusian Jarcha-s p. 201.

194

See Bentahila and Davies“Patterns” p. 84.

197

ZwartjesThe Andalusian Jarcha-s p. 205.

198

Zwartjes“La alternancia” p. 33.

199

SternLes chansons mozarabes p. 26.

203

ZwartjesThe Andalusian Jarcha-s p. 238.

204

SternLes chansons mozarabes p. 26.

206

Zwartjes“La alternancia” p. 33.

209

Zwartjes“La alternancia” p. 32.

210

Emilio García GómezLas jarchas romances p. 321.

213

ZwartjesThe Andalusian Jarcha-s p. 224.

216

See Abu-Haidar“The Muwashshahat” p. 68.

217

ZwartjesThe Andalusian Jarcha-s p. 180.

218

Zwartjes“La alternancia” p. 20.

219

Ibid. p. 42.

222

Michel García“La revanche des dominés: L’hypothèse des kharjas mozarabes” in Les discours des groupes dominés: Actes du colloque organisé à la Sorbonne par le GRMESPEPParis Presses de la Sorbonne Nouvelle (Cahiers de l’UFR d’Études Ibériques et Latino-Américaines) 1987 p. 13-23.

223

ZwartjesThe Andalusian Jarcha-s p. 244.

224

Ben RamptonCrossing: Language and Ethnicity among AdolescentsNew YorkLongman1995.

225

Jane Hill“Junk Spanish, Covert Racism, and the (Leaky) Boundary between Public and Private Spheres”Pragmatics5 (1995) p. 197-212.

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