Why is It Difficult to Date When qalqala Became Unintelligible to Qurʾānic Reciters and Grammarians?

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Sībawayh describes /q/, /ṭ/, /b/, /ǧ/ and /d/ as [+ voiced + stop] phonemes. In pausal position, these phonemes are subject to qalqala, which can be described as the addition of a schwa [ə], and whose role is the proctection of the [+ voiced] feature of these phonemes. In standard Classical Arabic, the pronunciation of these phonemes has evolved (/q/ and /ṭ/ are now realised as [- voiced], and /ǧ/ as [+ affricate]). The consistency of qalqala as described by Sībawayh is thus lost, since the Qurʾānic recitation (taǧwīd) rule for qalqala does not fit the current standard pronunciation.

In this study, we trace back a shift in the mere definition of qalqala as early as in al-Mubarrad’s Muqtaḍab that will enable Qurʾānic reciters to later remain blind to the fact that their actual pronunciation of some of these phonemes does not correspond to Sībawayh’s written description.

Why is It Difficult to Date When qalqala Became Unintelligible to Qurʾānic Reciters and Grammarians?

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7

SībawayhLe livreii p. 310 l. 8.

9

Ibid. p. 52.

10

FleischTraité de philologie arabei p. 222-223 228; al-Nassir Sibawayh the Phonologist p. 37-47.

15

Jonathan OwensA linguistic history of ArabicOxfordOxford University Press2006Appendix 3: “Imala in Zamaxshari” p. 281.

19

ʿArabāwīḤurūf al-qalqala p. 185-192 197-199; Ġānim Qaddūrī l-Ḥamad al-Dirāsāt al-ṣawtiyya ʿinda ʿulāmāʾ al-taǧwīd Baghdad Maṭbaʿat al-ḫulūd 1987 (reprint: Amman Dār ʿAmmār 2009) p. 260.

24

SībawayhLe livreii p. 310 l. 7-11.

27

HumbertLes voies de la transmission du Kitāb p. 27-30.

29

Al-NassirSibawayh the Phonologist p. 52-54.

31

Al-SīrāfīŠarḥxvi p. 129 l. 9-11.

33

Al-SīrāfīŠarḥxvi p. 129 l. 14-16.

34

Ibid.xvi p. 131 l. 1-2.

35

Ibn al-Ǧazarīal-Našri p. 166 l. 7.

37

Al-SīrāfīŠarḥxvi p. 129 l. 15.

38

Ibn al-Ǧazarīal-Našri p. 166 l. 4.

39

ʿArabāwīḤurūf al-qalqala p. 82.

40

Ibid. p. 84 113 212.

45

Al-MubarradKitāb al-Muqtaḍabi p. 332 l. 10.

46

Ibid.i p. 332 l. 8-13.

48

Ibid. p. 260.

51

Al-Zamaḫšarī“al-Mufaṣṣal” p. 189.15-17; quoted in Ibn Yaʿīš Šarḥ al-Mufaṣṣal x p. 128 l. 7-9.

52

Al-Zamaḫšarī“al-Mufaṣṣal” p. 189.19-21; quoted in Ibn Yaʿīš Šarḥ al-Mufaṣṣal x p. 128 l. 10-11.

53

Ibid.x p. 129 l. 26-p. 130 l. 3.

54

ʿArabāwīḤurūf al-qalqala p. 78.

56

SībawayhLe livreii p. 310 l. 11-13.

61

Ibid. p. 149 l. 6-8.

62

Ibid. p. 150 l. 5-8.

68

Ibn al-Ǧazarīal-Našri p. 166 l. 11-12.

69

Al-ʿAwfīal-Fuṣūl p. 58 l. 8-12.

70

Al-NassirSibawayh the Phonologist p. 51-52.

71

Ibid. p. 121.

72

Ibn al-Ǧazarīal-Našri p. 166 l. 5-6.

76

Ibid. p. 150 l. 9-p. 151 l. 2.

77

Ibid. p. 281 l. 3-p. 282 l. 9.

82

Ibid. p. 281 l. 13.

85

Ibid. p. 282 l. 1-3.

89

Ibid. p. 116-117.

90

Ibid. p. 124 l. 13.

93

Al-Dānīal-Taḥdīd p. 104-105.

95

Ibid. p. 88 l. 1-5; p. 89 l. 4-9.

97

Abū ŠāmaIbrāz al-maʿānī p. 755 l. 4-8.

99

SībawayhLe livreii p. 453 l. 21-22.

100

Ibid.ii p. 454 l. 6.

101

Abū ŠāmaIbrāz al-maʿānī p. 755 l. 6.

102

Ibid. p. 755 l. 7.

106

Ibid.iii p. 263 l. 2-5.

111

Jonathan Owens“History” in The Oxford handbook of Arabic linguisticsed. Jonathan Owens Oxford Oxford University Press 2013 p. 452.

113

Ibid. p. 260.

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