The Continued Presence of the Multinational Force on Iraqi Request

in Austrian Review of International and European Law Online
No Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

The Continued Presence of the Multinational Force on Iraqi Request

in Austrian Review of International and European Law Online

References

1 UN Doc. S/RES/1483 (2003), 22 May 2003. 2 UN Doc. S/RES/1546 (2004), 8 June 2004. 3 Ibid., op. paras. 1 and 2. 4 UN Doc. SIRES/1546 (2004), 8 June 2004, preamb. para. 15.

5 See http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/05/2003050 1-15 .html.

6 CPA/REG/16 May 2003/01 (2003). 7 In order to achieve its goals effectively, the CPA was given exclusive executive, legislative and judicial authority, exercised through the administrator, L. Paul Bremer, who himself promulgated the regulation. The regulation also gave the commander of the coalition forces the mandate to support the CPA by, amongst other things, deterring hostilities, and to assist in carrying out coalition policy in general. 8 UN Doc. S/RES/1483 (2003), 22 May 2003. 9 Consequently, the 'Governing Council of Iraqis' was established by a regulation of the CPA on 13 July 2003 as the principal body of the Iraqi interim administration and its establishment welcomed in S/Res 1500 of 14 August 2003. S/Res 1511 of 16 October 2003 was once more reaffirming Iraq's sovereignty and stressing the temporary nature of the CPA. In its op. para. 13, this resolution finally authorized the "multinational force under unified command [...] to take all necessary measures to contribute to the maintenance of security and stability in Iraq". In November 2003, the Governing Council of Iraqis and the CPA concluded an 'Agreement on Political Process' that laid down the process and conditions for the handover of full sovereignty to Iraq. 10 PPA, Law of Administration for the State of Iraq for the Transitional Period, 8 March 2004, http://www.cpa-iraq.org/govemment/TAL.htmi.

" The White House, President Bush Discusses the Iraqi Interim Government, 1 June 2004, http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2004/06/2004060 1- 2.html. 'z UN Doc. S/RES /1546 (2004), 8 June 2004, ann. " Ibid. '° UN Doc. S/RES/1546 (2004), 8 June 2004. 15 Ibid., preamb. para. 14. '6 UN Doc. S/RES/1546 (2004), 8 June 2004, op. para. 1. " Ibid., op. para. 2. '$ UN Doc. S/RES/1511 (2004), 16 October 2003.

" UN Doc. S/RES/1546 (2004), 8 June 2004, op. para. 9-12. UN Doc. S/RES/1637 (2005), 11 November 2005. 21 Following the first general elections to the Iraqi National Assembly held in January 2005, Ibrahim al-Jaafari was appointed as Prime Minister of the Transitional Government of Iraq, which was formed in April 2005. After elections in December 2005, it was replaced by the current Iraqi Government, which took office in May 2006, lead by Nouri al-Maliki.

zz To be understood as the body of law encompassing the four Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977.

23 M. Bothe, "Occupation after Armistice/Occupation, Belligerent/Occupation, Pacific", in B. Rudolf (ed.), Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Vol. III 761, at 761-763, 767 (1997).

24 D. Thurer/M. MacLaren "`juts Post Bellum' in Iraq: A Challenge to the Applicability and Relevance of International Humanitarian Law?" in K. Dicke, St. Hobe, K.-U. Meyn et al. (eds.), Weltinnenrecht. Liber amicorum Jost Delbruck 753, at 770 (2005). '� A. Roberts, "Iraq's Day of Reckoning", The Guardian, 25 May 2004.

z6 A. Roberts, "A Military Occupation?" 55 BYIL 249, at 252 (1984). 27 1949 Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Z8 J. Pictet (ed.), T7ze Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949: Commentary, (IV) Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of civilian Persons in Time of War, 60 (1984). 2' UK Ministry of Defence, The Manual on the Law of Armed Conflict, 275 et seq (2005). '° See, e.g., Prosecutor v. Naletilic and Martinovic Trial Judgement IT-98-34-T, 31 March 2003, para. 211.

" Prosecutor v. Naletilic and Martinovic, Trial Judgement, Case No. IT-98-34-T, 31 March 2003, at para. 217, referring to Roberts, supra note 25, and various Military Field Manuals. '2 D. Thurer/M. MacLaren "`juts Post Bellum' in Iraq: A Challenge to the Applicability and Relevance of International Humanitarian Law?" in K. Dicke, St. Hobe, K.-U. Meyn et al. (eds.), Weltinnenrecht. Liber amicorum Jost Delbruck 753, at 769 (2005). " M. Bothe, "Occupation after Armistice/Occupation, Belligerent/Occupation, Pacific", in B. Rudolf (ed.), Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Vol. III 761, at 761-763 (1997). 34 1949 Geneva Convention (IV) Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. 's M. Sassoli, "Article 43 of the Hague Regulations and Peace Operations in the Twenty-First Century", Background Paper prepared for Informal High-Level Expert Meeting on Current Chal- lenges to International Humanitarian Law, Cambridge, June 25-27 2004, 9 et seq., http://www. ihlresearch.org/ihllpdfs/sassoli.pdf.

36 UN Doc. S/RES/1483 (2003), 22 May 2003. " UN Doc. S/RES/1546 (2004), 8 June 2004, op. para. 2. '$ Ibid., op. para. 9-12. '9 UN Doc. A/RES/56/83 (2001), 12 December 2001, ann.

'° Qu. Wright, "Intervention, 1956", 51 AJIL 257, at 270 (1957). 41 UN Doc. A/RES/3314 (XXIX), 14 December 1974, ann. 42 Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua. v. United States), Merits, Judgment of 27 June 1986, 1986 ICJ Rep. 14, at para. 205. 43 Ibid., at para. 246.

44 R. Jennings/A. Watts (eds.), Oppenheim's International Law, Vol. I Peace 438 (1992). for examples of state practice see, e.g., L. Doswald-Beck, "The Legal Validity of Military Intervention by Invitation of the Government", 56 BYIL 189 (1985); Ch. J. Le Mon, "Unilateral Intervention by Invitation in Civil Wars: The Effective Control Test Tested", 35 NYU JILP 741 (2003); G. Nolte, Eingreifen auf Einladung (1999). 46 Institut de Droit International, "Le principe de non-intervention dans les guerres civiles", resolution adopted at the session in Wiesbaden 1975, http://www.idi-iil.org/idiF/resolutionsF/1975 wies_ 03 fr.pdf. " Y. Dinstein, War, Aggression and Self Defence 113 (2005). 48 L. Doswald-Beck, "The Legal Validity of Military Intervention by Invitation of the Government", 56 BYIL 189, at 197 (1985).

49 Qu. Wright, "Subversive Intervention", 54 AJIL 521, at 529 (1960). so Qu. Wright, "Intervention, 1956", 51 AJIL 257, at 275 (1957). 5 M. W. Reisman/J. Silk, "Which Law Applies in the Afghan Conflict?" 82 AJIL 459, at 481 (1988). sz E. Benvenisti, The International Law of Occupation, 173 (2004).

5 H.-P. Gasser, "Protection of Civilian Population", in D. Fleck (ed.), The Handbook of Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts 209, at 244 (1995). �" See, e.g., the "Paris Agreements" relating to German sovereignty, concluded between the US, the UK, France and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) in 1954, in particular the provisions regarding the revocation of the occupation statute and the stationing of allied forces in the FRG; 49 AJIL, Supplement: Official Documents 55-62 (1955).

55 M. W. Reisman/J. Silk, "Which Law Applies in the Afghan Conflict?" 82 AJIL 459, at 481 ( 1988). 56 E. Benvenisti, The International Law of Occupation, 173 (2004). 57 M. Sass6ii, "Article 43 of the Hague Regulations and Peace Operations in the Twenty-First Century", Background Paper prepared for Informal High-Level Expert Meeting on Current Challenges to International Humanitarian Law, Cambridge, June 25-27 2004, 10, http://www. ihlresearch.org/ihl/pdfs/sassoli.pdf. 58 D. Thiirer/M. MacLaren '"Jus Post Bellum' in Iraq: A Challenge to the Applicability and Relevance of International Humanitarian Law?" in K. Dicke/St. Hobe/K.-U. Meyn et al. (eds.), Weltinnenrecht. Liber amicorum Jost Delbruck 753, at fn 63 (2005). s9 UN Doc. S/RES/1546 (2004), 8 June 2004, op. para. 9.

60 Ibid., op. para. 1. 61 M. Sass6li, "Article 43 of the Hague Regulations and Peace Operations in the Twenty-First Century", Background Paper prepared for Informal High-Level Expert Meeting on Current Challenges to International Humanitarian Law, Cambridge, June 25-27 2004, 10, http://www. ihlresearch.org/ihUpdfs/sassoli.pdf. bz UN Doc. S/RES/1483 (2003), 22 May 2003. 6' The legal system was to be transformed in order to enable the Iraqi people to "freely [...] determine their own political future and control their own natural resources [...] to form a representative government based on the rule of law that affords equal rights and justice to all Iraqi citizens without regard to ethnicity, religion, or gender." Furthermore, the resolution called for an "effective administration" of Iraq by the occupants in order to enable the political transformation [S/Res/1483 (2003), 22 May 2003]. 64 E. Benvenisti, The International Law of Occupation xi (2004).

bs UN Doc. S/RES/1546 (2004), 8 June 2004. 66 Ibid., op. paras. 1 and 2. 6 Ibid., preamb. para. 15. D. Thurer/M. MacLaren "`juts Post Bellum' in Iraq: A Challenge to the Applicability and Relevance of International Humanitarian Law?" in K. Dicke, St. Hobe, K.-U. Meyn et al. (eds.), Weltinnenrecht. Liber amicorum Jost Delbruck 753, at 770 et seq. (2005). UN Doc. S/RES/1546 (2004), 8 June 2004, ann.

'° D. Thurer/M. MacLaren "Ijus Post Bellum' in Iraq: A Challenge to the Applicability and Relevance of International Humanitarian Law?" in K. Dicke, St. Hobe, K.-U. Meyn et al. (eds.), Weltinnenrecht. Liber amicorum Jost Delbriick 753, at 772 (2005). " UN Doc. S/RES/1546 (2004), 8 June 2004, op. para. 9-12. 72 Ibid., para. 12: "[...] Decides further that the mandate for the multinational force shall be reviewed at the request of the Government of Iraq [... ]nd declares that it will terminate this mandate earlier if requested by the Government of Iraq[...]".

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 14 14 4
Full Text Views 54 54 30
PDF Downloads 0 0 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0