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175 For example, the MO the discussion on the definition of pollution damage clearly shows that IGOs are not in any way treated differently from NGOs; neither is their input as observers more substantial. Representatives of both of these groups asked for "clarifi- cations" (see Director of the International Oil Polludon Compensation Fund asked for clarification of the concept of "pollution damage"); '`express concern" (representative of the EC Commission); "support" (the observer from the International Group of P and I Associations supported the demand for a clear definition of the concept of pollution damage); Official Records of the International Conference on Liability an Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Certain Substances by Sea, 1984 and

the International Conference on the Revision of the 1969 Civil Liability Convention and the 1971 Fund Convention, 1992, IMO London 1993. "6 Putnam states: "[t]he politics of many international negotiations can be usefully conceived as a two-level game. At the national level, domestic groups pursue their interests by pressuring the government to adopt favourable policies, and politicians seek power by construing coalitions among these groups. At the international level, national governments seek to maximise their own ability to satisfy domestic pressures, while minimising the adverse consequences of foreign developments. Neither of the two games can be ignored by central decision-makers, so long as their countries remain independent, yet sovereign", R.D. Putman, supra, note 26, p. 434.

177 Another area in the field of international law in which NGOs may have some influence, if not yet a direct role, is that of international litigation, in particular in relation to the advisory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice-see R. Higgins, "Remedies and the International Court of Justice: An Introduction", in Remedies in International Law, the Institutional Dilemma, Malcolm Evans (ed.), Hart Publishing, Oxford, 1998. 178 M. Longford, supra, note 124, pp. 220-221.


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