Studies concerning the relationship between religion and mental health have provided substantial evidence for the existence of a positive relationship. Nevertheless, it remains largely unclear which aspects of both religion and mental health take part in this relationship. The present study uses multiple measures of religion and of mental health to obtain a more refined view of this relationship. The results show the importance of distinguishing between if a person believes (inclusion vs. exclusion of transcendence) and how a person believes (literal vs. symbolic). Religious persons who have a symbolic attitude towards religion scored higher on positive aspects of mental health (well-being). No significant results were found for negative mental health (psychological distress).