Spirituality with and without Religion—Differential Relationships with Personality

in Archive for the Psychology of Religion
No Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Summary

This study contributes to the exploration of self-rated spirituality by anchoring self-ratings of spirituality and religiosity in an integrative model of personality. For the measurement of personality dispositions and characteristic adaptations, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO-PI-R, German version) and the Sources of Meaning and Meaning in Life Questionnaire (SoMe) have been administered to a sample (N = 135) of German-speaking students. A three-step study design is employed. First, previous findings on associations between personality and religiosity/spirituality are replicated and supplemented. Second, sources of meaning are shown to explain a considerably higher amount of unique variance in religiosity and spirituality than do personality dispositions. Third, two types of spirituality—religious-and-spiritual and spiritual-but-not-religious—are identified and distinguished on the basis of personality traits. The spiritual-but-not-religious type shows significantly higher degrees of Neuroticism, and lower degrees of Agreeableness. Possible interpretations and lines of future research on ‘spirituality without religion’ are sketched out.

Spirituality with and without Religion—Differential Relationships with Personality

in Archive for the Psychology of Religion

Sections

References

BarkerE. JerolimovD.ZrinščakS.BorowikI. The Church Without and the God Within: Religiosity and/or Spirituality Religion and Patterns of Social Transformation 2004 Zagreb Institute for Social Research 23 47

BeckerP. Zur Replizierbarkeit und Interkorrelationsstruktur der Faktoren im revidierten NEO-Persönlichkeitsinventar (NEO-PI-R) und Trierer Integrierten Persönlichkeitsinventar (TIPI) Diagnostica 2004 50 1 39 48

BouchardT. J.Jr.LykkenD. T.McGueM.SegalN. L.TellegenA. Sources of Human Psychological Differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart Science 1990 250 223 228

BucherA. A. Psychologie der Spiritualität 2007 Weinheim Beltz

CantorN. From Thought to Behavior: “Having” and “Doing” in the Study of Personality and Cognition American Psychologist 1990 45 735 750

EVS Foundation/Tilburg University European Values Study 2008 4th Wave 2010 GESIS Cologne Germany Download: 2011-11-22

FrancisL. J. SchumakerJ. F. Religion, Neuroticism, and Psychoticism Religion and Mental Health 1992 New York Oxford University Press 149 160

GabrielK. MünkH. J.DurstM. Pluralisierung und Individualisierung in Gesellschaft, Religion und Kirche Christliche Identität in pluraler Gesellschaft. Reflexionen zueiner Lebensfrage von Theologie und Kirche heute 2005 Freiburg/Schweiz Paulusverlag 21 58

GreenS. B. How many subjects does it take to do a regression analysis? Multivariate Behavioral Research 1991 26 449 510

HeelasP.WoodheadL. The Spiritual Revolution: Why Religion is giving Way to Spirituality. Religion and Spirituality in the Modern World 2005 Oxford Blackwell

HenningsgaardJ. M.ArnauR. C. Relationships between Religiosity, Spirituality, and Personality: A Multivariate Analysis Personality and Individual Differences 2008 45 8 703 708

HillP. C.PargamentK. I. Advances in the Conceptualization and Measurement of Religion and Spirituality. Implications for Physical and Mental Health Research The American Psychologist 2003 58 1 64 74

HillsP.FrancisL. J.ArgyleM.JacksonC. J. Primary Personality Trait Correlates of Religious Practice and Orientation Personality and Individual Differences 2004 36 61 73

LeontievD. A. Approaching worldview structure with ultimate meanings technique Journal of Humanistic Psychology 2007 47 243 266

LittleB. R. PervinL.JohnO. Personality and Motivation: Personal Action and the Conative Evolution Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research 1999 New York Guilford Press 501 524

MacDonaldD. A. Spirituality: Description, Measurement, and Relation to the Five Factor Model of Personality Journal of Personality 2000 68 1 153 197

MaltbyJ.DayL. Spiritual Involvement and Belief: The Relationship between Spirituality and Eysenck’s Personality Dimensions Personality and Individual Differences 2001a 30 2 187 192

MaltbyJ.DayL. The Relationship between Spirituality and Eysenck’s Personality Dimensions: A Replication among English Adults The Journal of Genetic Psychology 2001b 162 1 119 122

MarlerP. L.HadawayC. K. Toward a Typology of Protestant “Marginal Members” Review of Religious Research 1993 35 34 54

MarlerP. L.HadawayC. K. “Being Religious” or “Being Spiritual” in America: A Zero-Sum Proposition? Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 2002 41 2 289 300

McAdamsD. P.PalsJ. L. A New Big Five: Fundamental Principles for an Integrative Science of Personality The American Psychologist 2006 61 3 204 217

McCraeR. R.CostaP. T. The Stability of Personality: Observations and Evaluations Current Directions in Psychological Science 1994 3 6 173 175

OstendorfF.AngleitnerA. NEO-Persönlichkeitsinventar nach Costa und McCrae revidierte Fassung (NEO-PI-R) 2004 Göttingen Hogrefe

PargamentK. I. Spiritually Integrated Psychotherapy: Understanding and Addressing the Sacred 2007 New York Guilford Press

PiedmontR. L. PaloutzianR. F.ParkC. L. The Role of Personality in Understanding Religious and Spiritual Constructs Handbook of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality 2005 New York Guilford Press 253 273

Princeton Religious Research Center Americans Remain Very Religious, But Not Necessarily in Conventional Ways Emerging Trends 2000 22 1 2 3

RobertsB. W.RobinsR. W. Broad Dispositions, Broad Aspirations: The Intersection of Personality Traits and Major Life Goals Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 2000 26 10 1284 1296

RoccasS.SagivL.SchwartzS. H.KnafoA. The Big Five Personality Factors and Personal Values Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 2002 28 789 801

RoofW. C. A Generation of Seekers: The Spiritual Journeys of the Baby Boom Generation 1993 San Francisco Harper-Collins

RyffC. D.SingerB. The Contours of Positive Human Health Psychological Inquiry 1998 9 1 28

SaroglouV. Religion and the Five Factors of Personality: A Meta-analytic Review Personality and Individual Differences 2002 32 1 15 25

SaroglouV. Religiousness as a Cultural Adaptation of Basic Traits: A Five-factor Model Perspective Personality and Social Psychology Review 2010 14 1 108 125

SaroglouV.Munoz-GarciaA. Individual Differences in Religion and Spirituality: An Issue of Personality Traits and/or Values Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 2008 47 1 83 101

SaucierG.SkrzypińskaK. Spiritual but not religious? Evidence for two independent dispositions Journal of Personality 2006 74 1257 1292

SchnellT. GräbW.CharbonnierL. Implizite Religiosität. Vielfalt von Lebensbedeutungen in religiösen Ausdrucksformen Individualisierung und die pluralen Ausprägungsformen des Religiösen 2008a Münster LIT-Verlag 83 107

SchnellT. BernhardtR.Schmidt-LeukelP. Religiosität und Identität Multiple religiöse Identität. Aus verschiedenen religiösen Traditionen schöpfen 2008b Zürich Theologischer Verlag 163 183

SchnellT. Implizite Religiosität—Zur Psychologie des Lebenssinns 2009a 2nd edn Lengerich Pabst

SchnellT. The Sources of Meaning and Meaning in Life Questionnaire (SoMe): Relations to Demographics and Well-being The Journal of Positive Psychology 2009b 4 6 483 499

SchnellT. Individual differences in meaning-making: Considering the variety of sources of meaning, their density and diversity Personality and Individual Differences 2011a 51 5 667 673

SchnellT. Experiential Validity: Psychological Approaches to the Sacred Implicit Religion 2011b 14 4 387 404

SchnellT.BeckerP. Personality and Meaning in Life Personality and Individual Differences 2006 41 1 117 129

SchnellT.BeckerP. Fragebogen zu Lebensbedeutungen und Lebenssinn: LeBe 2007 Göttingen Hogrefe

SchnellT.KeenanW. J. F. Meaning-Making in an Atheist World Archive for the Psychology of Religion 2011 33 1 55 78

SchnellT.KeenanW. J. F. WesterinkH.HeineS. The Construction of Atheist Spirituality: A Survey-Based Study Constructs of Meaning and Religious Transformation Vienna Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht

ScottR. O. Are You Religious or Are You Spiritual: A Look in the Mirror Spirituality and Health 2001 Spring 26 28

SpilkaB.HoodR. W.Jr.HunsbergerB.GorsuchR. The Psychology of Religion: An Empirical Approach 2003 3rd edn. New York Guilford Press

StreibH.HoodR. W. “Spirituality” as Privatized Experience-Oriented Religion: Empirical and Conceptual Perspectives Implicit Religion 2011 14 4 433 453

StreibH.KleinC. The Spirituality of Atheists Agnostics and Deconverts 2011 Paper for the Conference of the International Association for the Psychology of Religion (IAPR) Bari Italy August 2011.

TabachnickB. G.FidellL. S. Using Multivariate Statistics 2007 Boston Pearson Education

WulffD. M. Psychology of Religion 1997 New York John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

ZinnbauerB. J.PargamentK. I.ColeB.RyeM. S.ButterE. M.BelavichT. G.HippK. M.ScottA. B.KadarJ. L. Religion and Spirituality: Unfuzzying the Fuzzy Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 1997 36 4 549 564

Figures

  • View in gallery
    Distribution of spirituality among religious persons, non-religious persons and convinced atheists according to EVS 4th wave data for North-Western countries.

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 72 72 16
Full Text Views 188 188 76
PDF Downloads 18 18 8
EPUB Downloads 8 8 0