Development and Initial Validation of a Scale to Assess Sufi Beliefs

In: Archive for the Psychology of Religion

Summary

Although the beliefs that Sufis (Ṣūfī) have introduced and promoted in the Islamic world seem to have had far-reaching influence on the way Muslims think and act, neither theorizing nor empirical research in the psychological literature has as yet focused on such beliefs and their impact on Islamic societies. Furthermore, although intellectual controversies about the functionality of Sufi beliefs abound, there is no instrument to address the existing issues empirically. The purpose of the three studies presented here is to identify major domains of Sufi belief, to describe the development and factor structure of a scale used to assess them, and to test the internal consistency, temporal stability (Study 1), and the convergent validity of this scale’s scores (Studies 2 and 3) in three samples of Iranian Shiʿite university students. The combined findings from the three studies reported here provide initial evidence that the Sufi Beliefs Scale is reliable, valid, and can be used in further studies.

  • Abu-RaiyaH.PargamentK.I.MahoneyA.SteinC. A psychological measure of Islamic religiousness: Development and evidence of reliability and validity International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 2008 18 4 291 315

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AhmadiN.AhmadiF. Iranian Islam; The Concept of the Individual 1998 UK MacMillan Press

  • AhmedS. What is Sufism? Forum Philosophicum 2008 13 233 251

  • AlMarriT.S.K.OeiT.P.S.Al-AdawiS. The development of the short Muslim practice and belief scale Mental Health, Religion and Culture 2009 12 5 415 426

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BadalamentiA. DavidA. LeemingMaddenKathrynMarlanStanton Mysticism and Psychotherapy Encyclopaedia of Psychology and Religion 2010 USA Springer Science+Business Media 596 598

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChittickW.C. Sufism: a Beginner’s Guide 2008 Oxford Oneworld

  • DelaneyC. The Spirituality Scale: development and psychometric testing of a holistic instrument to assess the human spiritual dimension Journal of Holistic Nursing 2005 23 2 145 167

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DowlingE.GestsdottirS.AndersonP.Von EyeA.LernerR.M. Spirituality, religiosity, and thriving among adolescents: Identification and confirmation of factor structures Applied Developmental Science 2003 7 4 253 260

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EdwardsA.LowisM. Construction and validation of a scale to assess attitudes to mysticism: the need for a new scale for research in the psychology of religion Spirituality and Health International 2008 9 16 31

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FakhryM. A History of Islamic Philosophy 2004 3rd edn. New York Columbia University Press

  • FrancisL.J.LoudenS.H. The Francis-Louden Mystical Orientation Scale (MOS): a study among Roman Catholic priests Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion 2000 11 99 116

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FrancisL.J.LoudenS.H. A Short Index of Mystical Orientation (SIMO): a study among Roman Catholic priests Pastoral Psychology 2004 53 49 51

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GeorgeL.K.EllisonC.G.LarsonD.B. Explaining the relationships between religious involvement and health Psychological Inquiry 2002 13 3 190 200

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GhaniGh. A Discussion of Sufism 1987 Tehran Zavar [in Farsi]

  • HappoldF.C. Mysticism: A Study and an Anthology 1963 Harmondsworth Penguin

  • HaslamN.BastianB.BainP.KashimaY. Psychological essentialism, implicit theories, and intergroup relations Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 2006 9 63 76

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HatchR.L.SpringH.RitzL.BurgM.A. personal communication 2008 February 1

  • HillP.C.PargamentK.I. Advances in the conceptualization and measurement of religion and spirituality: Implications for physical and mental health research American Psychologist 2003 58 64 74

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HoodR.W.Jr. The Construction and Preliminary Validation of a Measure of Reported Mystical Experience Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 1975 14 29 41

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HudaQ. MeriJ.W. Sufism and Sufis: South Asia Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia 2006 Vol. 2. New York Taylor & Francis 773 775

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JoshanlooM. Investigation of the contribution of spirituality and religiousness to hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in Iranian young adults Journal of Happiness Studies 2011 12 6 915 930

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JoshanlooM. Investigation of the factor structure of religiousness and spirituality in Iranian Shiite University students International Journal of Psychology 2012 47 3 211 221

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JoshanlooM.NosratabadiM. Levels of mental health continuum and personality traits Social Indicators Research 2009 90 211 224

  • JoshanlooM.NosratabadiM.Jafari KandovanGh. Social well-being, the Big Five factors and self-esteem Journal of Psychological Science 2007 21 66 88 [in Farsi]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KaramustafaA.T. Sufism: The Formative Period 2007 Edinburgh Edinburgh University Press

  • KüngH. BowdenJ. Islam: Past, Present, and Future 2007 Oxford Oneworld

  • Mansouri LarijiE. Islamic mysticism 2009 Tehran International Publication Company [in Farsi]

  • MascaroN.RosenD.H. The role of existential meaning as a buffer against stress Journal of Humanistic Psychology 2006 46 2 168 190

  • MascaroN.RosenD.H.MoreyL.C. The development, construct validity, and clinical utility of the Spiritual Meaning Scale Personality and Individual Differences 2004 37 845 860

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MillerW.R.ThoresenC.E. Spirituality, religion, and health: An emerging research field American Psychologist 2003 58 24 35

  • NafisiS. Sources of Sufism in Iran 2006 Tehran Asatir [in Farsi]

  • NelsonJ.M. Psychology, Religion, and Spirituality 2009 USA Springer

  • NurbakhshD. Sufism and Psychoanalysis: Part One: What is Sufism? International Journal of Social Psychiatry 1978 24 204 212

  • ParkC.L. PaloutzianR.F.ParkC.L. Religion and meaning Handbook of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality 2005 New York Guilford Press 295 314

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PiedmontR.L.CiarrocchiJ.W.Dy-LiaccoD.WilliamsJ.E.G. The empirical and conceptual value of the Spiritual Transcendence and Religious Involvement scales for personality research Psychology of Religion and Spirituality 2009 1 3 162 179

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PlanteT.G.BoccacciniM. Reliability and validity of the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire Pastoral Psychology 1997a 45 429 437

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PlanteT.G.BoccacciniM. The Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire Pastoral Psychology 1997b 45 375 387

  • RahimianS. Basic Principles of Islamic Theoretical Mysticism 2009 2nd edn. Tehran Samt [in Farsi]

  • RenardJ. The A to Z of Sufism 2009 UK The Scarecrow Press

  • RidgeonL. Sufi Castigator: Ahmad Kasravi and Iranian Mystical Tradition 2006 New York Routledge

  • RyffC.D. Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1989 57 1069 1081

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RyffC.D.SingerB.PalmersheimK.A. BrimO.G.RyffC.D.KesslerR.C. Social inequalities in health and well-being: The role of relational and religious protective factors How healthy are we?: A national study of well-being at midlife 2004 Chicago University of Chicago Press 90 123

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SimpsonJ.A. The ultimate elixir? Psychological Inquiry 2002 13 226 229

  • SolbergE.C.DienerE.RobinsonM. KasserT.KannerA.D. Why are materialists less satisfied? Psychology and Consumer Culture: The Struggle for a Good Life in a Materialistic World 2004 Washington, DC American Psychological Association 29 48

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StaceW.T. Mysticism and Philosophy 1960 Philadelphia, PA Lippincott

  • StegerM.F.FrazierP. Meaning in life: One link in the chain from religiousness to well-being Journal of Counseling Psychology 2005 52 4 574 582

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TabachnickB.G.FidellL.S. Using Multivariate Statistics 2001 Pearson MA

  • YasrebiY. The Philosophy of Mysticism: An Analysis of the Principles, Fundamentals, and Issues of Mysticism 2008 Tehran Bustan-e Ketab Publishers [in Farsi]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZarrinkoobA. Persian Sufism in the historical perspective Iranian Studies 1970 3 139 220

  • ZarrinkoobA. The Value of the Heritage of Sufism 1999 Tehran Amirkabir Publications [in Farsi]

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 159 152 14
Full Text Views 53 33 0
PDF Downloads 16 3 0