Towards a Theory of Spiritual and Religious Experiences

A Building Block Approach of the Unexpected Possible

in Archive for the Psychology of Religion
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

How do we define religious experiences? And what would be the relationship with spiritual experiences? The author claims that the cognitive turn in science gives us new opportunities to map the territory of religion and spirituality. In line with other authors (Taves, Wildman), he proposes a building block approach of cognitive mechanisms that can deal with questions regarding the specificity, origin, and complexity of religious experiences. Two concepts are presented that bridge the great divide which is presumed to exist between sciences that study the brain and humanities, namely the encultured brain and predictive minds. In section three, six building blocks of the structure of religious experience are formulated. New in his approach is the unexpected possible as distinctive ground between normal experiences and what we consider spiritual and religious experiences. Finally, the author presents a critical reflection on his proposal and challenges for the road ahead.

Towards a Theory of Spiritual and Religious Experiences

A Building Block Approach of the Unexpected Possible

in Archive for the Psychology of Religion

Sections

References

AmmermanN. Spiritual but not religious? Beyond binary choices in the study of religion Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 2013 52 258 278

AtranS. In gods we trust. The evolutionary landscape of religion 2002 Oxford Oxford U.P.

ClarkA. Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2013 36 181 253

CloningerC. R. Spirituality and the science of feeling good Southern Medical Journal 2007 100 740 743

DimulescuA.DessallesJ.-L. TaatgenN. A.van RijnH. Understanding narrative interest: Some evidence on the role of unexpectedness Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society 2009 Amsterdam Cognitive Science Society 1734 1739

DessallesJ.-L. DoweD. L. Algorithmic simplicity and relevance Algorithmic probability and friends. Bayesian prediction and artificial intelligence. Proceedings of the Solomonoff 85th Memorial Conference 2013 Berlin Springer Retrieved May 2 2014 from www.dessalles.fr/papers/Dessalles_11061001.pdf

DonaldM. HatfieldG.PittmanH. Mimesis theory re-examined, twenty years after the fact Evolution of Mind Brain and Culture 2013 Philadelphia, APA University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology 169 192

FristonK. The free-energy principle: a rough guide to the brain? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2009 13 293 301

FristonK. Is the free energy principle neurocentric? Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2010 13 127 138

FristonK. Active inference and free energy Behavioral and Brain Science 2013 36 212 213

FrithC.FrithU. Learning from others: Introduction to the special review series on social neuroscience Neuron 2010 65 739 743

GeertzA. W. GeertzA. W. Whence religion? How the brain constructs the world and what this might tell us about the origins of religion, cognition and culture Origins of religion culture and cognition 2013 Durham Acumen 1 17

HermansC. A. M. Participatory learning. Religious education in a globalizing world 2003 Leiden Brill

HermansC. A. M. Towards a ‘u-turn’ by the churches: How (not) to possibilise the future Religion & Theology 2012 19 237 264

HermansC. A. M. Spiritual transformation: Concept and measurement Journal of Empirical Theology 2013 26 2 165 187

HermansC. A. M. De HaardtM.Scherer-RathM.GanzevoortR. R. Narratives of the self in the study of religion. Epistemological reflections based on a pragmatic notion of weak rationality Religious stories we live by. Narrative approaches in theology and religious studies 2014a Leiden Brill 34 43

HermansC. A. M. From practical theology to practice-oriented theology: The study of lived spirituality and lived religion in late modernity International Journal of Practical Theology 2014b 18 1 1 14

JamesW. The varieties of religious experience: A study in human nature 1902/1961 New York Collier Books

JenssenJ. S. StausbergM. Religion as the unintended product of brain functions in the “standard cognitive science of religion model”: On Pascal Boyer and Ilkka Pyysiäinen Contemporary theories of religion. A critical companion 2009 Abingdon Routledge 129 155

JonasE.McGregorI.KlacklJ.AgroskinD.FritscheI.HoldbrookC.NashK.ProulxT.QuirinM. Threat and defence: From anxiety to approach Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 2014 49 219 286

LendeD. H.DowneyG. Encultured brain: An introduction to neuroanthropology 2012 Cambridge, MA MIT Press

McGregorI.PrenticeM.NashK. Approaching relief: Compensatory ideals relieve threat-induced anxiety by promoting approach-motivated states Social Cognition 2012 30 6 689 714

McNamaraP. The neuroscience of religious experience 2009 New York Cambridge University Press

ParkC. Making sense of the meaning literature. An integrative review of meaning making and its effects on adjustment to stressful life events American Psychological Association 2010 136 257 301

ParkC. The meaning making model. A framework for understanding meaning, spirituality, and stress-related growth in health psychology European Health Psychology 2013 15 40 47

ProulxT.InzlichtM.Harmon-JonesE. Understanding all inconsistency compensation as palliative response to violated expectations Trends in Cognitive Science 2012 15 285 291

PyysiäinenI. How religion works. Towards a new cognitive science of religion 2001 Leiden Brill

RoepstorffA.FrithC. What’s at the top in the top-down control of action? Script-sharing and “top-top” control of action in cognitive experiments Psychological Research 2004 68 189 198

RoepstorffA.NiewöhnerJ.BeckS. Enculturing brains through patterned practices Neural Networks 2010 23 1051 1059

SchjoedtU.SørensenJ.NielboK. L.XygalatasD.MitkidisP.BulbuliaJ. The resource model and the principle of predictive coding: A framework for analysing proximate effects of ritual Religion Brain and Behavior 2013 3 79 86

SchleiermacherF. CrouterR. On religion. Speeches to its cultured despisers 1988 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

Schüssler-FiorenzaF. Religions: A contested site in theology and religious studies Harvard Theological Review 2001 93 7 34

SmithJ. Z. Map is not territory. Studies in the history of religions 1993 Chicago University of Chicago Press

StausbergM. StausbergM. There is life in the old dog yet: An introduction to contemporary theories of religion Contemporary theories of religion. A critical companion 2009 Abingdon Routledge 1 21

StrasserS. Phenomenology of feeling. An essay on the phenomena of the heart 1977 Pittsburgh Duquesne University

TavesA. Religious experience reconsidered. A building-block approach to the study of religion and other special things 2009 Princeton Princeton University Press

TavesA. Experience as site of contested meaning and value: The attributional dog and its special tail Religion 2010 40 317 323

TremlinT. Minds and gods. The cognitive foundations of religion 2006 Oxford Oxford University Press

Van der LansJ. Religious experience and meditation. A study in the psychology of religion Religieuze ervaring en meditatie. Een godsdienstpsychologische studie 1980 Deventer Van Loghum Slaterus

Van der VenJ. A. StreibH. Three paradigms for the study of religion Religion inside and outside traditional institutions 2007 Leiden Brill 7 35

Van HeusdenB. The structure of culture or what does the turtle know? De structuur van cultuur of: wat weet de schildpad? 2010 Oration University of Groningen

Van HuyssteenJ. W. The shaping of rationality. Toward interdisciplinarity in theology 1999 Grand Rapids Eerdmans

VliegenthartD. Can neurotheology explain religion? Archive for the Psychology of Religion 2011 33 137 171

WildmanW. J. Religious and spiritual experiences 2011 New York Cambridge University Press

WuchterlK. Contingency or the other than reason. On the relationship between philosophy science and religion Kontingenz oder das Andere der Vernunft. Zum Verhältnis von Philosophie Natuurwissenschaft und Religion 2011 Stuttgart Franz Steiner Verlag

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 87 87 19
Full Text Views 75 75 62
PDF Downloads 7 7 1
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0