Secular Examination of Spirituality-Prosociality Association

Survey Research in Nonreligious-Based Populations in China

in Archive for the Psychology of Religion
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Religious beliefs in Chinese cultural background, especially in Chinese secular society, have rarely been systematically investigated. The nonreligious-based population in China endorses certain supernatural beliefs or has related transcendent experience, even though they usually claim themselves as non-believers. Therefore, the current research examined the spirituality-prosociality association in Chinese secular background, demonstrating how spiritual connection with the transcendence related to individual secular social life. A total of 440 Chinese participants completed our questionnaires in three survey studies. The results showed that: 1) for the nonreligious-based population in China, spirituality was positively connected with personal prosocial trait, prosocial attitude, and prosocial behavior; 2) the prosocial trait of compassionate love partially mediated the association between spirituality and daily prosocial expenses on time and money; and 3) personal emphasis on moral principles such as ultimate justice beliefs partially mediated the association between spirituality and interpersonal altruism in organizational settings. Limitations and future directions were discussed.

Secular Examination of Spirituality-Prosociality Association

Survey Research in Nonreligious-Based Populations in China

in Archive for the Psychology of Religion

Sections

References

AhmedA.HammarstedtM. The effect of subtle religious representations on cooperation International Journal of Social Economics 2011 38 11 900 910

AndersonJ. E.KayA. C.FitzsimonsG. M. In search of the silver lining: The justice motive fosters perceptions of benefits in the later lives of tragedy victims Psychological Science 2010 21 11 1599 1604

CarpenterT. P.MarshallM. A. An examination of religious priming and intrinsic religious motivation in the moral hypocrisy paradigm Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 2009 48 2 386 393

ClobertM.SaroglouV.HwangK. K. East Asian religious tolerance versus Western monotheist prejudice: The role of (in)tolerance of contradiction Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 2015 1368430215603458

ClobertM.SaroglouV.HwangK. K.SoongW. L. East Asian religious tolerance—A myth or a reality? Empirical investigations of religious prejudice in East Asian societies Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 2014 45 10 1515 1533

Del RioCarlos M.WhiteLyle J. Separating spirituality from religiosity: A hylomorphic attitudinal perspective Psychology of Religion and Spirituality 2012 4 2 123 142 doi: 10.1037/a0027552

EmmonsR. A. Religion in the psychology of personality: An introduction Journal of Personality 1999 67 6 874 888

FarhJ. L.EarleyP. C.LinS. C. Impetus for action: A cultural analysis of justice and organizational citizenship behavior in Chinese society Administrative Science Quarterly 1997 42 3 421 444

GalenL. W. Does religious belief promote prosociality? A critical examination Psychol Bull 2012 138 5 876 906 doi: 10.1037/a0028251

GervaisW. M.NorenzayanA. Like a camera in the sky? Thinking about God increases public self-awareness and socially desirable responding Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 2012 48 298 302 doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2011.09.006

GingesJ.HansenI.NorenzayanA. Religion and support for suicide attack Psychological Science 2009 20 2 224 230

GrahamJ.HaidtJ. Beyond beliefs: Religions bind individuals into moral communities Personality and Social Psychology Review 2010 14 1 140 150

HenrichJ.HeineS. J.NorenzayanA. The weirdest people in the world? Behavioral and Brain sciences 2010 33 2-3 61 83

HuberJ. T.MacDonaldD. A. An investigation of the relations between altruism, empathy, and spirituality Journal of Humanistic Psychology 2012 52 2 206 221

Jiang-linK.Jian-minS.JuanW. Development and validation of the workplace spirituality scale Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology 2013 22 5 826 830

KoenigH. G. Concerns about measuring “spirituality” in research Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 2008 196 5 349 355 doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e31816ff796

LaurinK.FitzsimonsG. M.KayA. C. Social disadvantage and the self-regulatory function of justice beliefs Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2011 100 1 149 171

LaurinK.KayA. C.FitzsimonsG. M. Divergent effects of activating thoughts of God on self-regulation Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2012 102 1 4 21 doi: 10.1037/a0025971

LazarusR. S. Emotion and adaptation 1991 New York Oxford University Press

MacDonaldD. A. Spirituality: Description, measurement, and relation to the five factor model of personality Journal of Personality 2000 68 1 153 197

MillimanJ.CzaplewskiA. J.FergusonJ. Workplace spirituality and employee work attitudes: An exploratory empirical assessment Journal of organizational change management 2003 16 4 426 447

OrganD. W. A restatement of the satisfaction-performance hypothesis Journal of Management 1988 14 4 547 557

OrganD. W. Organizational citizenship behavior: It’s construct clean-up time Human Performance 1997 10 2 85 97

PaciottiB.RichersonP.BaumB.LubellM.WaringT.McElreathR.EdstenE. Are religious individuals more generous, trusting, and cooperative? An experimental test of the effect of religion on prosociality Research in Economic Anthropology 2011 31 267 305

PetermanA. H.ReeveC. L.WinfordE. C.CottonS.SalsmanJ. M.McQuellonR.CampbellC. Measuring meaning and peace with the FACIT-Spiritual Well-Being Scale: Distinction without a difference? Psychological Assessment 2014 26 1 127 137 doi: 10.1037/a0034805

PlatowM. J. An evaluation of the social desirability of prosocial self—Other allocation choices The Journal of Social Psychology 1994 134 1 61 68

PrestonJ. L.RitterR. S.IvanH. J. Principles of Religious Prosociality: A Review and Reformulation Social and Personality Psychology Compass 2010 4 8 574 590 doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2010.00286.x

SaroglouV. Religion, spirituality, and altruism The APA Handbook of Psychology Religion and Spirituality 2013 1 439 457

SaroglouV.PichonI.TrompetteL.VerschuerenM.DernelleR Prosocial behavior and religion: New evidence based on projective measures and peer ratings Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 2005 44 3 323 348

SaslowL. R.JohnO. P.PiffP. K.WillerR.WongE.ImpettE. A.SaturnS. R. The social significance of spirituality: New perspectives on the compassion-altruism relationship Psychology of Religion and Spirituality 2013 5 3 201 218 doi: 10.1037/a0031870

SaucierG.SkrzypinskaK. Spiritual but not religious? Evidence for two independent dispositions Journal of Personality 2006 74 5 1257 1292 doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2006.00409.x

SchumannK.RossM. Belief in Ultimate Justice scale 2010 Manuscript in preparation

SeidlitzL.AbernethyA. D.DubersteinP. R.EvingerJ. S.ChangT. H.LewisB. B. L. Development of the spiritual transcendence index Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 2010 41 3 439 453

ShariffA. F.NorenzayanA. God is watching you: Priming God concepts increases prosocial behavior in an anonymous economic game Psychological Science 2007 18 9 803 809

ShiahY. J.ChangF.TamW. C. C.ChuangS. F.YehL. C. I don’t believe but I pray: Spirituality, instrumentality, or paranormal belief? Journal of Applied Social Psychology 2013 43 8 1704 1716

SprecherS.FehrB. Compassionate love for close others and humanity Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 2005 22 5 629 651

TwengeJ. M.BaumeisterR. F.DeWallC. N.CiaroccoN. J.BartelsJ. M. Social exclusion decreases prosocial behavior Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2007 92 1 56 66

TanJ. H. W.VogelC. Religion and trust: An experimental study Journal of Economic Psychology 2008 29 6 832 848

UnderwoodL. G.TeresiJ. A. The daily spiritual experience scale: Development, theoretical description, reliability, exploratory factor analysis, and preliminary construct validity using health-related data Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2002 24 1 22 33

VailK. E.3rdArndtJ.AbdollahiA. Exploring the existential function of religion and supernatural agent beliefs among Christians, Muslims, atheists, and agnostics Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 2012 38 10 1288 1300 doi:10.1177/0146167212449361

van CappellenP.SaroglouV.IweinsC.PiovesanaM.FredricksonB. L. Self-transcendent positive emotions increase spirituality through basic world assumptions Cognition & Emotion 2013 27 8 1378 1394

YangF.YuanV.SunA.YengfangL.StarkR.JohnsonB.Heu-YuanC. Spiritual Life Study of Chinese Residents 2007 Retrieved from http://www.thearda.com/archive/files/descriptions/sprtchna.asp

ZinnbauerB. J.PargamentK. I.ColeB.RyeM. S.ButterE. M.BelavichT. G.KadarJ. L. Religion and spirituality: Unfuzzying the fuzzy Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 1997 549 564

Figures

  • View in gallery
    The mediation of compassionate love in the association between daily spiritual experience and time spent on prosociality.
  • View in gallery
    The mediation of compassionate love in the association between daily spiritual experience and money spent on prosociality.

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 46 46 18
Full Text Views 83 83 46
PDF Downloads 3 3 1
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0