Model of Muslim Religious Spirituality: Impact of Muslim Experiential Religiousness on Religious Orientations and Psychological Adjustment Among Iranian Muslims

in Archive for the Psychology of Religion
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Summary

Previous research indicates that spirituality expressed in tradition-specific terms may initiate, invigorate, and integrate Muslim religious commitments, suggesting a 3-I Model of Religious Spirituality. In a test of this model, Islamic seminarians, university students, and office workers in Iran (N = 604) responded to Muslim Experiential Religiousness (MER), Religious Orientation, and mental health scales. The tradition- specific spirituality of MER displayed correlation, moderation, and mediation results with Intrinsic and Extrinsic Personal Religious Orientations that pointed toward initiation, invigoration, and integration effects, respectively. MER also clarified the ambiguous implications of the Extrinsic Social Religious Orientation. These data most generally confirmed the heuristic potential of the 3-I Model.

Model of Muslim Religious Spirituality: Impact of Muslim Experiential Religiousness on Religious Orientations and Psychological Adjustment Among Iranian Muslims

in Archive for the Psychology of Religion

Sections

References

Abu RaiyaH. (2017). A critique from within: Some important research issues that psychologists of religion and spirituality should further work on. Mental Health Religion & Culture20544-551.

Abu-RaiyaH. & HillP. C. (2014). Appraising the state of measurement of Islamic religiousness. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality622-32.

AikenL. S. & WestS. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.

BaronR. M. & KennyD. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology511173-1182.

BrownK. W. & RyanR. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology84822-848.

CostelloC. G. & ComreyA. L. (1967). Scales for measuring depression and anxiety. Journal of Psychology66303-313.

GhorbaniN.BingM. N.WatsonP. J.DavisonH. K. & MackD. A. (2002). Self- reported emotional intelligence: Construct similarity and functional dissimilarity of higher order processing in Iran and the United States. International Journal of Psychology37297-308.

GhorbaniN.WatsonP. J.AghababaeiN. & ChenZ. (2014). Transliminality and mystical experience: Common thread hypothesis, religious commitment, and psychological adjustment in Iran. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality6268-275.

Ghorbani N. Watson P. J. Asadi M. & Chen Z. J. (2018). Muslim religion and spirituality in cadets: Further evidence of complexity and diversity in Iranian religious commitments. Manuscript submitted for publication.

GhorbaniN.WatsonP. J.FarhadiM. & ChenZ. (2014). A multi-process model of self-regulation: Influences of mindfulness, integrative self‐knowledge and self- control in Iran. International Journal of Psychology49115-122.

GhorbaniN.WatsonP. J.GeranmayepourS. & ChenZ. (2013). Analyzing the spirituality of Muslim experiential religiousness: Relationships with psychological measures of Islamic religiousness in Iran. Archive for the Psychology of Religion35233-258.

GhorbaniN.WatsonP. J.GeranmayepourS. & ChenZ. (2014a). Measuring Muslim spirituality: Relationships of Muslim experiential religiousness with religious and psychological adjustment in Iran. Journal of Muslim Mental Health877-94.

GhorbaniN.WatsonP. J.GeranmayepourS. & ChenZ. (2014b). Muslim experiential religiousness: Relationships with attitude toward Islam, religious reflection, and basic needs satisfaction in Iranians. In R. L. Piedmont & A. Village (Eds.) Research in the social scientific study of religionVolume 25 (pp. 53-72). Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.

GhorbaniN.WatsonP. J. & HargisM. B. (2008). Integrative self-knowledge: Correlations and incremental validity of a cross-cultural measure developed in Iran and the United States. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied142395-412.

GhorbaniN.WatsonP. J.KashanakiH. & Chen Z. J. (2017). Diversity and complexity of religion and spirituality in Iran: Relationships with self-compassion and self-forgiveness. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion27157-171.

GhorbaniN.WatsonP. J. & KhanZ. (2007). Theoretical, empirical, and potential ideological dimensions of using Western conceptualizations to measure Muslim religious commitments. Journal of Muslim Mental Health2113-131.

GhorbaniN.WatsonP. J.MadaniM. & ChenZ. J. (2016). Muslim experiential religiousness: Spirituality relationships with psychological and religious adjustment in Iran. Journal of Spirituality and Mental Health18300-315.

Ghorbani N. Watson P. J. Rabiee F. & Chen Z. J. (2018). Religious fundamentalism in Iran: Religious and psychological adjustment within a Muslim cultural context. Manuscript submitted for publication.

GhorbaniN.WatsonP. J. & WeathingtonB. L. (2009). Mindfulness in Iran and the United States: Cross-cultural structural complexity and parallel relationships with psychological adjustment. Current Psychology28211-224.

GorsuchR. L. & McPhersonS. E. (1989). Intrinsic/extrinsic measurement: I/E revised and single-item scales. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion28348-354.

HayesA. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation moderation and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press.

HodgeD. R. (2003). The Intrinsic Spirituality Scale: A new six-item instrument for assessing the salience of spirituality as a motivational construct. Journal of Social Service Research3041-61.

JonesA. E. & ElliottM. (2017). Examining social desirability in measures of religion and spirituality using the bogus pipeline. Review of Religious Research5947-64.

KhanZ. H. & WatsonP. J. (2004). Religious orientation and the experience of Eid-ul-Azha among Pakistani Muslims. Journal for The Scientific Study of Religion43537-545.

KhanZ. H.WatsonP. J. & ChenZ. (2015). Meanings of animal sacrifice during Eid-ul-Adha: Relationships with religious orientations and Muslim experiential religiousness in Pakistan. Archive for the Psychology of Religion371-17.

KhanZ. H.WatsonP. J. & ChenZ. J. (2016). Muslim spirituality, religious coping, and reactions to terrorism among Pakistani university students. Journal of Religion and Health552086-2098.

KhanZ. H.WatsonP. J.NaqviA. Z.JahanK. & ChenZ. (2015). Muslim experiential religiousness in Pakistan: Meaning in life, general well-being and gender differences. Mental Health Religion & Culture18 482-491.

NasrS. H. (2002). The heart of Islam. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco.

PargamentK. I. (2013). Searching for the sacred: Toward a nonreductionistic theory of spirituality. In K. I. PargamentJ. J. Exline & J. W. Jones (Eds.) APA handbook of psychology religion and spirituality (Vol. 1): Context theory and research (pp. 257-273). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

RaesF.PommierE.NeffK. D. & Van GuchtD. (2011). Construction and factorial validation of a short form of the Self-Compassion Scale. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy18250-255.

RosenbergM. (1965). Society and adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University.

SahinA. & FrancisL. J. (2002). Assessing attitude toward Islam among Muslim adolescents: The psychometric properties of the Sahin-Francis scale. Muslim Educational Quarterly1935-47.

TangneyJ. P.BaumeisterR. F. & BooneA. L. (2004). High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. Journal of Personality72271-322.

WatsonP. J.MorrisR. J. & HoodR. W.Jr. (1988). Sin and self-functioning, Part 1: Grace, guilt, and self-consciousness. Journal of Psychology and Theology16254-269.

WildeA. & JosephS. (1997). Religiosity and personality in a Moslem context. Personality and Individual Differences23899-900.

ZinnbauerB. J.PargamentK. I.ColeB.RyeM. S.ButterE. M.BelavichT. G.KadarJ. L. (1997). Religion and spirituality: Unfuzzying the fuzzy. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion36549-564.

Figures

  • View in gallery
    Partial correlations among religious and psychological measures controlling for age and gender
  • View in gallery
    Muslim Experiential Religiousness (MER) moderation of Religious Orientation (RO) relationships
  • View in gallery
    Muslim Experiential Religiousness (MER) moderation of Intrinsic Orientation relationships. Values along the Y-axis range from 1 through 5. Low and High MER were defined by + 1 standard deviation from the mean
  • View in gallery
    Muslim Experiential Religiousness (MER) moderation of Extrinsic Personal and Extrinsic Social relationships
  • View in gallery
    MER mediation of religious orientation independent variable relationships with other measures
  • View in gallery
    Group mean differences in religious and psychological functioning and in correlations of Muslim Experiential Religiousness (MER) with other Measures

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 20 20 18
Full Text Views 36 36 23
PDF Downloads 3 3 1
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0