Praying as a Form of Religious Coping in Dutch Highly Educated Muslim Women of Moroccan Descent

in Archive for the Psychology of Religion
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Summary

This article addresses the research question: “How do Dutch highly educated Muslim women of Moroccan descent use prayer in dealing with problems?” The theoretical framework was mainly based on the work of Pargament et al. regarding religious coping. The empirical part of the study consisted of a quantitative and a qualitative part. This article presents results of the quantitative part. For the quantitative part of our research, 177 questionnaires were collected using snowball sampling. We asked respondents about their praying practices and their ways of religious coping, using the Brief RCOPE. The connection and communication in their prayer with a loving, caring, benevolent God is the main religious way in which these Muslim women of Moroccan descent cope with all kinds of problems. This use of prayer as a way of coping can be clarified through the psychological functions of religiosity and prayer that are suggested by Pargament, Koenig, and Perez (2000). Prayer could help them in: (1) finding meaning, (2) being master over their circumstances and controlling their emotions, (3) finding comfort and closeness to God, (4) experiencing intimacy with others and closeness to God, and (5) transforming their way of life. We did find few negative religious coping strategies, such as negative feelings towards God or alienation. This is in line with research results of Abu Raiya and Pargament (2010). As Islam implies surrender to God, it may be difficult for Muslims to admit their religious distress, doubts, and struggles.

Praying as a Form of Religious Coping in Dutch Highly Educated Muslim Women of Moroccan Descent

in Archive for the Psychology of Religion

Sections

References

Abu RaiyaH. & PargamentK. I. (2010). Religious integrated psychotherapy with Muslim clients: From research to practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice41(2) 181188.

Abu-RaiyaH. & PargamentK. I. (2011). Empirically based psychology of Islam: Summary and critique of the literature. Mental Health Religion and Culture14(2) 93115.

Abu RaiyaH.PargamentK. I.MahoneyA. & SteinC. (2008). A psychological measure of Islamic religiousness: Development and evidence for reliability and validity. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion18(4) 291315.

Bänziger S. (2007). Still praying strong. An empirical study of the praying practices in a secular society (Dissertation). Enschede.

BänzigerS.Van UdenM. & JanssenJ. (2008). Praying and coping: The relation between varieties of praying and religious coping styles. Mental Health Religion and Culture11(1) 101118.

BrownL. B. (1994). The human side of prayer: The psychology of praying. Birmingham Alabama: Religious Education Press.

CetrezÖ. A. (2011). The next generation of Assyrians in Sweden: Religiosity as a functioning system of meaning within the process of acculturation. Mental Health Religion & Culture14(5) 473487.

De Koning M. (2008). Zoeken naar een “zuivere” Islam. Geloofsbeleving en identiteitsvorming van jonge Marokkaans-Nederlandse Moslims [Looking for a “pure” Islam. Faith experience and identity formation of young Moroccan-Dutch Muslims] (Dissertation). Amsterdam.

EmmonsR. A. & SchnitkerS. A. (2015). God and goals. Religion and purposeful action. In: R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.) Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality Second edition (pp. 256273). New York: The Guilford Press.

EspositoJ. L. (2003). The Oxford dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

FosterR. (1992). Prayer: Finding the heart’s true home. New York: Harper Collins.

HeilerF. (1921). Das Gebet. Eine religionsgeschichtliche und religionspsychologische Untersuchung 3e druk. [Prayer. An investigation from the viewpoint of the history of religion and the psychology of religion 3rd ed.]. München: Verlag von Ernst Reinhart.

JamesW. (1902/1958). The varieties of religious experience. A study in human nature. New York: Random House, The Modern Library.

JanssenJ.De HartJ. & Den DraakC. (1990). A content analysis of the praying practices of Dutch youth. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion29(1) 99107.

JanssenJ.PrinsM.BaerveldtC. & Van der LansJ. (1998). Structuren en varianten van bidden. Een onderzoek bij Nederlandse jongeren [Structures and varieties of prayer. An investigation among Dutch youth]. In M. Van Uden & J. Pieper (Eds.) Wat baat religie? Godsdienstpsychologen en godsdienstsociologen over het nut van religie [What is the use of religion? Psychologists of religion and sociologists of religion on the benefits of religion] (pp. 6797). Nijmegen: KSGV.

KhanZ. H.WatsonP. J. & ChenZ. (2011). Differentiating religious coping from Islamic identification in patient and non-patient Pakistani Muslims. Mental Health Religion & Culture14(10) 10491062.

LaddK. & McIntoshD. N. (2008). Meaning, God, and prayer: Physical and metaphysical aspects of social support. Mental Health Religion and Culture11(1) 2338.

LeeE.-K. O. & ChanK. (2009). Religious/spiritual and other adaptive coping strategies among Chinese American older immigrants. Journal of Gerontological Social Work52(5) 517533.

LevineM. (2008). Prayer as coping: A psychological analysis. Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy15(2) 8098.

LjamaiA. (2005). Inleiding tot de Studie van de Koran. Ontstaansgeschiedenis en methodes van de koranexegese [Introduction to the study of the Koran. History and methods of Koran exegesis]. Zoetermeer: Meinema.

MahmoodS. (2001). Rehearsed spontaneity and the conventionality of ritual: Disciplines of salat. American Ethnologist28(4) 827853.

MahmoodS. (2005). Politics of piety. The Islamic revival and the feminist subject. Princeton/Oxford: Princeton University Press.

MaliepaardM. & GijsbertsM. (2012). Moslims in Nederland [Muslims in the Netherlands]. Den Haag: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau.

MastersK. S. & SpielmansG. I. (2007). Prayer and health: Review, meta-analysis and research agenda. Journal of Behavioral Medicine30(4) 329338.

McCulloughM. E.BonoG. & RootL. M. (2005). Religion and forgiveness. In R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.) Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 394411). New York: The Guilford Press.

NasrS. H. (2004). The heart of Islam. Enduring values for humanity. New York: HarperCollins.

PaloutzianR. F. & ParkC. L. (2015). Directions for the future of the psychology of religion and spirituality: Research advances in methodology and meaning systems. In R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.) Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality. Second edition (pp. 651666). New York: The Guilford Press.

PargamentK. I. (1997). The psychology of religion and coping. Theory research and practice. New York: Guilford Press.

PargamentK. I. (2007). Spiritually integrated psychotherapy. Understanding and addressing the sacred. New York: Guilford Press.

PargamentK. I.FeuilleM. & BurdzyD. (2011). The Brief RCOPE: Current psychometric status of a short measure of religious coping. Religions2(1) 5176.

PargamentK. I.KennellJ.HathawayW.GrevengoedN.NewmanJ. & JonesW. (1988). Religion and the problem-solving process: Three styles of coping. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion27(1) 90104.

PargamentK. I.KoenigH. G. & PerezL. M. (2000). The many methods of religious coping: Development and initial validation of the RCOPE. Journal of Clinical Psychology56(4) 519543.

ParkC. L. & SlatteryJ. M. (2015). Religion, spirituality, and mental health. In R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.) Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality. Second edition (pp. 540559). New York: The Guilford Press.

PolomaM. M. & GallupG. H.Jr. (1991). Varieties of prayer: A survey report. Philadelphia: Trinity Press International.

RoexI.Van StiphoutS. & TillieJ. (2010). Salafisme in Nederland: Aard omvang en dreiging [Salafism in the Netherlands: Nature range and threat]. Amsterdam: WODC.

SanchezM.DillonF.RuffinB. & De La RosaM. (2012). The influence of religious coping on the acculturative stress of recent Latino immigrants. Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work21(3) 171194.

ShakirM. H. (2005). Concordance of the Qur’an. Extracted from the M.H. Shakir translation of the Qur’an. New York: Tahrike Tarsile Qur’an Inc.

SpilkaB. & LaddK. L. (2013). The psychology of prayer. A scientific approach. New York: The Guilford Press.

TillieJ. (2008). Gedeeld land. Het multiculturele ongemak van Nederland [Shared country. The multicultural discomfort of the Netherlands]. Amsterdam: Meulenhoff.

TremlinT. (2006). Minds and gods. The cognitive foundations of religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Van BommelA.RuttenS.KruinigerP.Ahmad AliH.Ahmad AliB. & RamsaramR. (Eds.) (2005). Islam en de Rechten van vrouwen. Deel 1. Handboek voor de empowerment van Moslimvrouwen.[Islam and female rights. Part 1. Handbook for the empowerment of Muslim women]. Utrecht: Forum.

Van der Valk L. (2016). Steun zoeken bij Allah. Religiositeit bidden en religieuze coping van Nederlandse hoogopgeleide Moslima’s van Marokkaanse afkomst [Seeking support from Allah. Religiosity praying and religious coping of Dutch highly educated Islamic women of Moroccan descent] (Dissertation). Delft: Eburon.

Van der ValkL.DriessenE. & BoeringT. (2009). Jonge Moslims over de kracht van hun geloof [Young Muslims on the power of their faith]. Journal of Social Intervention: Theory and Practice18(4) 121129.

Van der ValkL.PieperJ. & Van UdenM. (2018). Vertrouwen op Allah. Religieuze coping van hoogopgeleide Nederlandse Moslima’s van Marokkaanse afkomst [Having trust in Allah. Religious coping of Dutch highly educated Islamic women of Moroccan descent]. Religie en Samenleving13(1) 527.

WinchesterD. (2008). Embodying the faith: Religious practice and the making of a Muslim moral habitus. Social Forces86(4) 17531780.

Yucel S. (2007). The effects of prayer on Muslim patients’ well-being (Dissertation). Boston: Boston University School of Theology.

Figures

  • View in gallery
    Frequency of praying of types of Islamic prayers, in percentages
  • View in gallery
    Prayer variant “crisis prayer”, arranged according to factor loading
  • View in gallery
    Brief RCOPE scale items with the subscales PRC and NRC, arranged according to the percentage per item of the response category “almost always”

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 12 12 11
Full Text Views 50 50 33
PDF Downloads 4 4 2
EPUB Downloads 1 1 1