The great diversity of the North Eastern Neo-Aramaic dialect group has only partially been studied. This is now an urgent task, since many of the dialects are now in danger of extinction. These dialects exhibit many fascinating linguistic features, which makes their investigation very rewarding. Investigation of these dialects also casts important light on some issues in the historical development of Aramaic and of North-West Semitic languages in general. Some of these issues are discussed in the paper. Particular attention is directed to the relationship of the lexicon of North-East Neo-Aramaic to that of earlier forms of literary Aramaic.