‘Aram’ in the Aramaic Inscriptions from Sefire

in Aramaic Studies
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Over many decades the references to ‘Aram’ in the Aramaic inscription Sefire I A, 5–6 have been interpreted as referring to a geographical location. Various scholars have proposed different solutions for the identification of this region. Nevertheless, a parallel formula, which appears in some Neo-Assyrian adê-texts, sheds new light on the meaning of ‘Aram’ in the Sefire inscription.

‘Aram’ in the Aramaic Inscriptions from Sefire

in Aramaic Studies

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References

1

S. Ronzevalle‘Fragments d’ inscriptions araméennes des environs d’ Alep’Mélanges de l’ Université Saint-Joseph 15 (2012) pp. 237–260 fac-similés Soudjîn IV pl. XXXIXXLV.

3

E. Schwartz‘Einiges über Assyrien, Syrien, Koilesyrien’Philologus 86 (1931) pp. 373–399 (399).

5

B. Mazar‘The Aramean Empire and its Relation with Israel’The Biblical Archaeologist 25 (1962) pp. 98–120 (116–126).

6

Dupont-Sommer and Starcky‘Les inscriptions araméennes de Sfiré’ p. 223.

10

H. SaderLes états araméens de Syrie depuis leur fondation jusqu’ à leur transformation en provinces araméennes (Beiruter Texte und Studien, 36, Beirut, Wiesbaden: in Kommission bei Franz Steiner Verlag1987) p. 127.

20

Thus the translation of FitzmyerThe Aramaic Inscriptions p. 43; Lipiński ‘Re-reading the Inscriptions’ p. 48; Gibson Textbook of Syriac Semitic Inscriptions 2 p. 29.

24

H. Bauer‘Ein aramäischer Staatsvertrag aus dem 8. Jahrhundert v. Chr. Die Inschrift der Stele von Sudschīn’AfO 8 (1932–1933) pp. 1–15 (4).

27

Mazar‘The Aramean Empire’ pp. 118–119. He connects the delimitation ‘Upper’ and ‘Lower Aram’ with the list of cities in Sefire IB 9–10.

28

R. DegenAltaramäische Grammatik der Inschriften des 10.–8. Jh. v. Chr. (Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes, 38.3, Wiesbaden: Komissionverlag Franz Steiner1969) p. 88.

29

Lemaire and DurandLes inscriptions araméennes p. 131.

30

Lipiński‘Re-reading the Inscriptions’ pp. 25 48.

31

E. LipińskiThe Aramaeans their Ancient History Culture Religion (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, 100, Leuven: Peeters2000) p. 214.

34

Sader‘History’ pp. 15–16.

35

LipińskiThe Aramaeans pp. 221–231.

37

G. Bunnens‘On Upper and Lower Aram Again,’ Ugarit-Forschungen 46 (2015) pp. 39–48.

38

Bunnens‘On Upper and Lower Aram Again’ pp. 42–43.

40

YoungerA Political History of the Arameans pp. 37 505–508.

44

Parpola‘Neo-Assyrian Treaties’ pp. 165–166; Parpola and Watanabe Neo-Assyrian Treaties p. 62. For the transcription of cuneiform texts we adopt the style used in the edition of Parpola and Watanabe Neo-Assyrian Treaties.

45

Parpola and WatanabeNeo-Assyrian Treaties pp. 81 and 84.

50

Parpola and WatanabeNeo-Assyrian Treaties p. 24 line 3.

51

Dupont-Sommer and Starcky‘Les inscriptions araméennes’ p. 344; KAI 2 p. 244.

57

Dupont-Sommer and Starcky‘Les inscriptions araméennes’ p. 347; DNWSI pp. 1209–1211. Cf. also the meaning of ‮תחת‬‎ in Biblical Hebrew (BDB pp. 1065–1066).

60

T. BryceThe Routledge Handbook of Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia. The Near East from the Early Bronze Age to the Fall of the Persian Empire (London: Routledge2009) p. 56.

61

M. Dunand‘Stèle araméenne dédiée à Melqart’Bulletin du Musée de Beyrouth 3 (1939) pp. 65–76.

65

Pitard‘The Identity of Bir-Hadad’ pp. 12–13.

67

A. Lemaire‘Joas de Samarie, Barhadad de Damas, Zakkur de Hamat. La Syrie-Palestine vers 88 av. J.-C.’Eretz-Israel 24 (A. Malamat volume) (1993) pp. 148*–157* (151*).

95

S. Parpola and M. PorterThe Helsinki Atlas of the Near East in the Neo-Assyrian Period (Helsinki: Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project—The Casco Bay Assyriological Institute2001) pp. 5–18; Bagg Die Orts- und Gewässernamen.

98

BaggDie Assyrer und das Westland p. 27.

100

BaggDie Assyrer und das Westland p. 28.

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