At the end of the nineteenth century Alfred Rahlfs stated that the manuscripts of the Old Testament Peshitta were clearly divided into two families according to confessional criteria (following the schism between the Eastern and Western Syriac Churches). As a consequence, no critical edition could be done. One century later Piet B. Dirksen cast doubt on the classical theory saying that the schism had been of no consequence for the transmission of the text. But there was one exception: the book of Psalms, on which the old paradigm would continue to weigh. This article challenges the statement on the role of the Psalter.