‘So I Girded My Loins in the Vision of Righteousness and Wisdom, in the Robe of Supplication’ (1QapGen ar VI.4). ‮קשט‬ in the Book of the Words of Noah and Second Temple Jewish Aramaic Literature

in Aramaic Studies
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This study analyses the Aramaic root ‮קשט‬ and its derivatives in the Book of the Words of Noah and Second Temple Jewish Aramaic literature. In its basic meaning the root and its derivatives signify the straightness of a matter, but they oscillate semantically from a simple statement regarding the truth of a matter to the idea of a universe that is patterned by righteousness. In its broad and often highly philosophical range of meanings, the concept of qûšṭâ comes closest to the idea of Maat in ancient Egyptian thought.

‘So I Girded My Loins in the Vision of Righteousness and Wisdom, in the Robe of Supplication’ (1QapGen ar VI.4). ‮קשט‬ in the Book of the Words of Noah and Second Temple Jewish Aramaic Literature

in Aramaic Studies




November 23rd 1993C1.


Thus Dimant‘Two “Scientific” Fictions’ pp. 240–242; Werman ‘Qumran and the Book of Noah’ pp. 171–181; Daniel K. Falk The Parabiblical Texts: Strategies for Extending the Scriptures among the Dead Sea Scrolls (Library of Second Temple Studies 63; London: T & T Clark 2007) pp. 100–106.


Armin Lange‘Your Daughters Do Not Give to Their Sons and Their Daughters Do Not Take for Your Sons (Ezra 9,12): Intermarriage in Ezra 9–10 and in the Pre-Maccabean Dead Sea Scrolls’BN 137 (2008) pp. 17–39 and BN 139 (2008) pp. 79–98 34 n. 77; Armin Lange ‘The Significance of the Pre-Maccabean Literature from the Qumran Library for the Understanding of the Hebrew Bible: Intermarriage in Ezra/Nehemiah-Satan in 1Chr. 21:1—the Date of Psalm 119’ in André Lemaire (ed.) Congress Volume Ljubljana 2007 (VTSup 133; Leiden: Brill 2010) pp. 171–218 esp. 184 n. 37.


This translation is guided by MilikBooks of Enoch p. 195.


Already Avigad and YadinGenesis Apocryphon p. 16 emphasized in their editio princeps the similarities between 1QapGen ar II and 1 En. 106.1–2. For 1Enoch 106–107 and 1QapGen ar 0–V.27 drawing on a common source see e.g. George W.E. Nickelsburg 1Enoch 1: A Commentary on the Book of 1Enoch Chapters 1–36; 81–108 (Hermeneia; Minneapolis Fortress Press 2001) pp. 539–540 and Loren Stuckenbruck 1Enoch 91–108 (Commentaries on Early Jewish Literature; Berlin: Walter de Gruyter 2007) pp. 612–613. For a history of research on the issue see Machiela Genesis Apocryphon pp. 9–13.


Henryk DrawnelAn Aramaic Wisdom Text from Qumran: A New Interpretation of the Levi Document (JSJSup, 86; Leiden: Brill2004) pp. 304 311. References to the Aramaic Levi Document are counted according to the edition of Jonas C. Greenfield Michael E. Stone and Esther Eshel The Aramaic Levi Document: Edition Translation Commentary (SVTP 19; Leiden: Brill 2004).


Translation according to Fitzmyer‘Tobit’ p. 52.


Translation according to Fitzmyer‘Tobit’ p. 52.


Takamitsu MuraokaA Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint (Leuven: Peeters2009) p. 25; cf. LSJ p. 63.


MuraokaGreek-English Lexicon p. 25; cf. LSJ p. 64.


Cf. DrawnelAramaic Wisdom Text p. 327.


Cf. Greenfield Stone and EshelThe Aramaic Levi Document pp. 125–126.


Cf. Greenfield Stone and EshelThe Aramaic Levi Document p. 158.


Matthew BlackThe Book of Enoch or 1Enoch: A New English Edition with Commentary and Textual Notes (SVTP, 7; Leiden: Brill1985) p. 87; Erik W. Larson ‘The LXX and Enoch: Influence and Interpretation in Early Jewish Literature’ in Gabriele Boccaccini (ed.) Enoch and Qumran Origins: New Light on a Forgotten Connection (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans 2005) pp. 84–89.


MilikBooks of Enoch p. 213 and Nickelsburg 1Enoch 1 pp. 538–539 propose various emendations of the Greek text which according to them suffered from homoioteleuton. Although scribal corruption of the Greek cannot be excluded in 1 En. 106.18 the same mistranslation of ‮קושט‬ occurs in 1 En. 107.2. It his therefore more probable that the Greek text mistranslated ‮קושט‬ in 1 En. 106.18 too. For the mistranslation cf. also Stuckenbruck 1Enoch 91–108 p. 675.


MilikBooks of Enoch p. 189 reconstructs ‮ועובדי קושטא‬ in 4QEnc ar 1 v 4 based on the Ethiopic and Greek translations.


Nickelsburg1Enoch 1 p. 327.


See Michael SokoloffThe Targum to Job from Qumran Cave XI (Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University1974) pp. 49 229.


See e.g. Otto PlögerSprüche Salomos (Proverbia) (BKAT, 17; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 2nd edn2003) p. 262; Roland E. Murphy Proverbs (WBC 22; Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers 1998) p. 169.


See e.g. Michael V. FoxProverbs 10–31: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary (AB, 18B; New Haven: Yale University Press2009) p. 712.


Cf. FoxProverbs 10–31 p. 712.


Cf. Matthias AlbaniAstronomie und Schöpfungsglaube: Untersuchungen zum astronomischen Henochbuch (WMANT, 68; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag1994) p. 94. For the differences between the Aramaic and the Ethiopic text of 1 En. 77.3 see also Albani Astronomie und Schöpfungsglaube p. 94. For the Ethiopic text of Astronomical Enoch as a later abbreviation of the Aramaic version see Milik Books of Enoch pp. 7–8; James C. VanderKam Enoch and the Growth of an Apocalyptic Tradition (CBQMS 16; Washington: Catholic Biblical Association of America 1984) pp. 81–82; Florentino García Martínez and Eibert J.C. Tigchelaar ‘1Enoch and the Aramaic Fragments from Qumran’ RdQ 14 (1989) pp. 134ff.; Klaus Koch ‘Die Anfänge der Apokalyptic in Israel und die Rolle des astronomischen Henochbuchs’ in Klaus Koch Vor der Wende der Zeiten: Beiträge zur apokalyptischen Literatur: Gesammelte Aufsätze 3 (ed. by Uwe Gleßmer und Martin Krause; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlage 1996) pp. 3–39 esp. 8–15.


Cf. Nickelsburg1Enoch 1 p. 449.


Cf. e.g. FitzmyerThe Genesis Apocryphon p. 117; Moshe J. Bernstein ‘From the Watchers to the Flood: Story and Exegesis in the Early Columns of the Genesis Apocryphon’ in Esther G. Chazon Devorah Dimant and Ruth A. Clements (eds.) Reworking the Bible: Apocryphal and Related Texts at Qumran: Proceedings of a Joint Symposium by the Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature and the Hebrew University Institute for Advanced Studies Research Group on Qumran 15–17 January 2002 (STDJ 58; Leiden: Brill 2005) pp. 39–63 esp. 43–46; Falk Parabiblical Texts p. 35; Sidnie White Crawford Rewriting Scripture in Second Temple Times (Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Literature; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans 2008) p. 108.


Only MachielaGenesis Apocryphon p. 57 reads in 1QapGen ar XII.19 ‮תֹיֹ‬‮ש֯‬‮ק֯‬‮ב֯‬ and consents that his reading is ‘uncertain’.


Translation according to MachielaGenesis Apocryphon p. 63.


Cf. Bernstein‘From the Watchers to the Flood’ p. 52.


Cf. Bernstein‘From the Watchers to the Flood’ p. 53.


See Lange‘Your Daughter’passim; idem ‘Significance’ passim; cf. Falk Parabiblical Texts pp. 88–89.


Thus Dorothy M. PetersNoah Traditions in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Conversations and Controversies of Antiquity (SBL.EJL, 26; Atlanta: SBL2008) pp. 110–112.


MachielaGenesis Apocryphon p. 46.


Cf. FitzmyerThe Genesis Apocryphon p. 149.


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