Constraints on Animal (and Plant) Form in Nature and Art

in Art & Perception
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

The forms of all extant animals and plants agree with a small number of main architectural schemes emerged through the history of life, which function as largely invariant patterns of body syntax. To a considerable extent, these ‘rules of forms’ are obeyed by the products of imagination developed in myth and represented in art, such as chimeras, centaurs, mermaids, angels and dragons. The main exception to this rule is the frequent occurrence of additional sets of paired appendages, such as two wings added onto a human figure or a four-legged beast. However, Turpin’s Urpflanze is totally at variance with respect to the body syntax of existing plants. Generalized familiarity with animals’ body syntax provides a scope for perceptual manipulations experienced by humans but also by other animals.

Constraints on Animal (and Plant) Form in Nature and Art

in Art & Perception

Sections

References

AbelO. (1914). Die Tiere der Vorwelt. TeubnerBerlin, Germany.

AldrovandiU. (1637). De Quadrupedibus Digitatis Viviparis Libri Tres et de Quadrupedibus Digitatis Viviparis Oviparis Libri Duo. M. A. Bernia Bononiae Italy.

AldrovandiU. (1640). Serpentum et Draconum Historiae Libri Duo. M. A. Bernia Bononiae Italy.

AldrovandiU. (1642). Monstrorum Historia. M. A. Bernia Bononiae Italy.

ArthurW. (2004). Biased Embryos and Evolution. Cambridge University PressCambridge, UK.

ArthurW. (2011). Evolution: A Developmental Approach. Wiley-BlackwellOxford, UK.

BarneyS. A.LewisW. J.BeachJ. A.BerghofO. (2006). The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville. Cambridge University PressCambridge, UK.

CarrollS. B. (2005). Endless Forms Most Beautiful: The New Science of Evo Devo. NortonNew York, NY, USA.

CarrollS. B.GrenierJ. K.WeatherbeeS. D. (2001). From DNA to Diversity: Molecular Genetics and the Evolution of Animal Design. Blackwell ScienceMalden, MA, USA.

CuvierG. (1816). Le Règne Animal Distribué d’après son Organisation pour Servir de Base à l’Histoire Naturelle des Animaux et d’Introduction à l’Anatomie Comparée. DetervilleParis, France.

DarwinC. (1862). On Various Contrivances by which British and Foreign Orchids are Fertilised by Insects. MurrayLondon, UK.

DürerA. (1528). Vier Bücher von Menschlicher Proportion. Hieronymus FormschneyderNürnberg, Germany.

Geoffroy Saint-HilaireI. (1832–1837). Histoire Générale et Particulière des Anomalies de l’Organisation chez l’Homme et les Animaux. J. B. BaillièreParis, France.

GoetheJ. W. (1790). Versuch die Metamorphose der Pflanzen zu Erklären. C. W. EttingerGotha, Germany.

GordonI. E. (1997). Theories of Visual Perception2nd edn. WileyLondon, UK.

GrandvilleJ. J. (1847). Les fleurs Animées. De GonetParis, France.

GrewN. (1682). The Anatomy of Plants. RawlingsLondon, UK.

HahnloserH. R. (1972). Villard de Honnecourt. Kritische Gesamtausgabe des Bauhüttenbuches ms. fr. 19093 der Pariser Nationalbibliothek2nd edn. Akademische Druck- und VerlagsanstaltGraz, Austria.

HallB. K. (1992). Evolutionary Developmental Biology. Chapman & HallLondon, UK.

HernandezF. (1648–1649). Rerum Medicarum Novae Hispaniae Thesaurus seu Plantarum Animalium Mineralium Mexicanorum Historia. V. MascardiRomae, Italy.

JacobF. (1997). Evolution and tinkeringScience 19611611166.

KircherA. (1665). Mundus Subterraneus. J. Jansson and E. WeyerstraetAmsterdam, the Netherlands.

LavaterJ. C. (1775–1778). Physiognomische Fragmente. LavaterLeipzig, Germany and WinterthurSwitzerland.

MandevilleJ. (1900). The Travels of Sir John Mandeville. MacmillanLondon, UK.

MangerH. L. (1783). Vollstaendige Anleitung zu einer Systematischen Pomologie wodurch die Genauigste Kentniß von der Natur Beschaffenheit und den Unterschiedenen Merkmalen aller Obstarten Enthalten Werden Kann. Zweyter Theil von den Birnen. J. F. JuniusLeipzig, Germany.

MayorA. (2000). The First Fossil Hunters: Paleontology in Greek and Roman Times. Princeton University PressPrinceton, NJ, USA.

McGheeG. R. (1999). Theoretical Morphology: The Concept and Its Applications. Columbia University PressNew York, NY, USA.

McGheeG. R. (2007). The Geometry of Evolution. Cambridge University PressCambridge, UK.

MinelliA. (2003). The Development of Animal Form: Ontogeny Morphology and Evolution. Cambridge University PressCambridge, UK.

MinelliA. (2009). Forms of Becoming. Princeton University PressPrinceton, NJ, USA.

ParryR. (2012). Empedocles in: The Stanford Encyclopedia of PhilosophyZaltaE. N. (Ed.) http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2012/entries/empedocles/.

ProverbioC. (2007). La Figura dell’Angelo nella Civiltà Paleocristiana. TauAssisi, Italy.

RuskinJ. (1900). Modern Painters Vol. II in: The Complete Works of John Ruskin Vol. III. The Kelmscott Society New York NY USA.

SchedelH. (1493). Liber Chronicarum. A. KobergerNurembergae, Germany.

SchmidtP. F. (1923). Philipp Otto Runge sein Leben und sein Werk. Insel-VerlagLeipzig, Germany.

ThompsonD’Arcy W. (1917). On Growth and Form. Cambridge University PressCambridge, UK.

TurpinP. J. F. (1837). Esquisse d’Organographie Végétale Fondée sur le Principe d’Unité de Composition Organique et d’Évolution Rayonnante ou Centrifuge pour Servir Prouver l’Identité des Organes Appendiculaires des Végétaux et la Métamorphose des Plantes de Goethe in: Œuvres d’Histoire Naturelle de Goethe Comprenant Divers Mémoires d’Anatomie Comparée de Botanique et de Géologie Traduits et Annotés par Ch. Fr. Martins docteur en médecine Atlas. Cherbuliez Paris France and Genève Switzerland.

VisserR. P. W. (1985). The Zoological Work of Petrus Camper (1722–1789). RodopiAmsterdam, the Netherlands.

WertheimerM. (1912). Experimentelle Studien über das Sehen von BewegungZ. Psychol. 61161265.

WoottonE. (1552). De Differentiis Animalium Libri Decem apud Vascosanum Lutetiae Parisiorum France.

Figures

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 25 25 11
Full Text Views 90 90 63
PDF Downloads 6 6 4
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0