The State-Centred Nosology

Changing Disease Names of Traditional Medicine in Post-Colonial South Korea

In: Asian Medicine

Since 1951, when the Medical Service Act was enacted in South Korea, traditional Korean medicine has been an independent part of a dual medical system along with biomedicine. Despite several attempts to subordinate Korean medicine to biomedicine, Korean medicine has managed to remain an institutionally-independent system of medical care. However, in the years since the launch of the South Korean National Health Insurance Service in 1977, official regulations have required Korean medical nosology to be linked to biomedical nosology. In particular, during the four times of revision from 1979 to 2015, the originally separated disease classification of Korean medicine was gradually integrated into the Korean Standard Classification of Diseases (kcd), which heavily relies on biomedical nosology. The present study uses this nosological shift as a window to illustrate the transformation of Korean medicine in South Korea since the 1970s.

  • ‘About MOHW’Ministry of Health & WelfareAccessed on 15 August 2016Online at http://www.mohw.go.kr/eng/sg/ssg0106mn.jsp?PAR_MENU_ID=1001&MENU_ID=10010601

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anonymous, '‘漢醫學敎育機關 存續을 爲하여 東洋醫藥大學生 籠城鬪爭을 展開!’ (‘The Demonstration of Students of Dongyang University of Medicine and Pharmaceutics for the Continuance of Korean Medicine Educational Institution’)' (1963) 40 Eelim 醫林 (Physician’s Gathering): 57-60.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BaeW. S., '‘慶熙大趙總長과 漢醫學’ (‘The President of Kyung Hee University Choue and Korean Medicine’)' (1968) 66 Eelim 醫林 (Physician’s Gathering): 7-8.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BaeW. S., '‘韓方醫保와 國民保健’ (‘Inclusion of Korean Medicine into the NHIS and Improvement of the Public Health’)' (1984) 162 Eelim 醫林 (Physician’s Gathering): 1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BaeW. S., '‘韓醫界가 바라는 韓方醫保’ (‘Korean Medicine’s Inclusion into the NHIS which Korean Medicine Physicians Desire’)' (1987) 177 Eelim 醫林 (Physician’s Gathering): 1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ‘東洋醫學專門을設立朝鮮醫士會 만들고 一致可決’ (‘An Agreed Approval on the Establishment of Dongyang University after Founding of the Association of Chosŏn Medicine Doctors’)Chayu Sinmun 自由新聞 (Chayu Newspaper)1945December1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ‘東洋醫學의 劃期的發展’ (‘An Epoch-making Development of East Asian Medicine’)Chosŏn ilbo 朝鮮日報 (Chosun Newspaper)1946April16

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ‘漢方課의 解消에 漢醫들이 總蹶起’ (‘The Rise of Korean Medicine Physicians against the Abolishment of the Korean Medicine Department’)Chosŏn ilbo 朝鮮日報 (Chosun Newspaper)1949July30

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ‘科學化 않으면 漢方醫는 自然消滅’ (‘Korean Medicine will be Abolished without Scientization’)Chosŏn ilbo 朝鮮日報 (Chosun Newspaper)1949July31

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ‘一考를 要하는 漢方醫對策’ (‘A Need of Consideration for the Measure of Korean Medicine Physicians’)Chosŏn ilbo 朝鮮日報 (Chosun Newspaper)1950March5

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ‘漢方醫療의 差別’ (‘The Discrimination on Korean Medicine Practice’)Chosŏn ilbo 朝鮮日報 (Chosun Newspaper)1977June7

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ‘Classification of Diseases’Korean Standard Statistical ClassificationAccessed on 15 August 2016Online at http://kssc.kostat.go.kr/ksscNew_web/ekssc/main/main.do

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Economic Planning Board, Korean Classification of Diseases, (Economic Planning Board, 1972).

  • Economic Planning Board, Korean Standard Classification of Diseases and Causes of Death (Oriental Medicine), (Economic Planning Board, 1979).

  • HanC. H., Revision Plan for the Third Korean Standard Classification of Diseases and Causes of Death (Oriental Medicine), (Dongguk University, Gyeongju 2008).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HanC. H., Analysis of Korean Medicine Parts of KCD-6 and International Classification of Traditional Medicine, (Dongguk University, Gyeongju 2014).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HanD. S.‘漢醫師가 본 漢醫師法改正’ (‘A Korean Medicine Physician’s Point of View on the Revision of the Medical Service Act of Korean Medicine’)Donga ilbo 東亞日報 (Dong-a Newspaper)1961December221961

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ‘KCD 사용여부 놓고 한의계 공론화’ (‘Gathering Public Opinion on the Usage of KCD in Korean Medicine Field’)Hanŭi sinmun 韓醫新聞 (The Korean Medicine Times)2006September15

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KangE. H.‘고시 앞둔 개정 KCD(OM) 보완여론 분출’ (‘Public Demands for Modification of the Revised KCD(OM) before the Official Notification’)Minchokŭihak sinmun 民族醫學新聞 (The Minjok Medicine News)2009May222009

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KimD. J.‘漢醫師法改正에 對한 私見 上 (‘A Personal Opinion on the Revision of the Medical Service Act of Korean Medicine, the First Part’)Donga ilbo 東亞日報 (Dong-a Newspaper)1961December151961

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KimD. J.‘漢醫師法改正에 對한 私見下’ (‘A Personal Opinion on the Revision of the Medical Service Act of Korean Medicine, the Second Part’)Donga ilbo 東亞日報 (Dong-a Newspaper)1961December161961

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KimK. W.주객이 전도된 한의 상병명 개정’ (‘A Contradictory Revision on Korean Medicine Nosology’)Minchokŭihak sinmun 民族醫學新聞 (The Minjok Medicine News)2009October222009

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KimS. J.‘한방표준질병사인분류 이대로 좋은가?’ (‘Korean Standard Classification of Diseases and Causes of Death of Oriental Medicine’)Minchokŭihak sinmun 民族醫學新聞 (The Minjok Medicine News)2003November212003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Korea Ministry of Government LegislationMedical Service Act1951

  • Korea Ministry of Government LegislationMedical Service Act1962

  • Korea Ministry of Government LegislationMedical Service Act1963

  • Korea Ministry of Government LegislationMedical Service Act1973

  • LeeC. Y.‘중대한 변혁기에 놓인 한의학’ (‘Korean Medicine in a Drastic Change’)Minchokŭihak sinmun 民族醫學新聞 (The Minjok Medicine News)2009October152009

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeeG. C.‘한의학은 Korean Medicine’ (‘Hanŭihak is Korean Medicine’)Hanŭi sinmun 韓醫新聞 (The Korean Medicine Times)2012March62012

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeeJ. Y.‘내과학, 한의사도 공부하자, 상’ (‘Let’s Study Internal Medicine, the First Part’)Minchokŭihak sinmun 民族醫學新聞 (The Minjok Medicine News)2009September252009

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ParkH. C.‘KCD 수용으로 한의학 영역 확대’ (‘Expanding the Scope of Korean Medicine by Accepting KCD’Hanŭi sinmun 韓醫新聞 (The Korean Medicine Times)2009May262009

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Statistics Korea, Korean Standard Classification of Diseases, (Statistics Korea, Seoul 2015).

  • The Association of Oriental Medicine, Korean Standard Classification of Diseases (Oriental Medicine), (The Association of Oriental Medicine, Seoul 1994).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Health Organization Western Pacific Region, WHO International Standard Terminologies on Traditional Medicine in the Western Pacific Region, (World Health Organization, Geneva 2007).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • YunM., '‘東洋民族과 東洋醫學’ (‘East Asian People and East Asian Medicine’)' (1947) 1(1) Tongyang ŭihak 東洋醫學 (East Asian Medicine): 85.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • YunD. BKyŏnghŭiŭiryowŏn samsipnyŏnsa 慶熙醫療院三十年史 (A Thirty-Year History of Kyung Hee University Medical Center)2004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChiC.LeeJ.LaiJ.ChenC.ChangS.ChenS., '‘The Practice of Chinese Medicine in Taiwan’' (1996) 43(9) Social Science & Medicine: 1329-1348.

  • ChoB. H., '‘The Politics of Herbal Drugs in Korea’' (2000) 51 Social Science & Medicine: 501-509.

  • ChoS., '‘The Emergence of a Health Insurance System in a Developing Country: The Case of South Korea’' (1989) 30(4) Journal of Health and Social Behavior: 467-471 [In Korean].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChoiS. M.ParkG. M.ShinM. K.ShinH. K., '‘The Research on the Disease Classification of the Traditional Medicine in Korea’' (2000) 4(2) Korean Journal of the Oriental Preventive Medical Society: 93-107 [In Korean].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JungK. Y.ParkW. Y.LeeC. Y., '‘Process of the Legislation of the National Medical Services Law for Traditional Korean Medicine Practitioners in 1951’' (2010) 31(1) Journal of Korean Oriental Medicine: 112-121 [In Korean].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KimT., '‘Cultivating Medical Intentionality: The Phenomenology of Diagnostic Virtuosity in East Asian Medicine’' (2017) 41 Culture Medicine and Psychiatry: 75-93.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeeJ., '‘State Control of Medicine through Legislation and Revision of the Medical Law: Licensed and Unlicensed Medical Practices in the 1950s–60s’' (2010) 19(2) Korean Journal of Medical History: 385-432 [In Korean].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeeT.ChaeY.KimN., '‘A Study on the Meanings of ByunJeung in Korean Medicine through the Journals Published in Korea’' (2014) 27(2) The Journal of Korean Medical History: 39-51 [In Korean].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeiS. H., Neither Donkey nor Horse, (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 2014).

  • OtsukaY., '‘Chinese Traditional Medicine in Japan’', in C. Leslie (ed), Asian Medical Systems: A Comparative Study, (University of California Press, Berkeley 1976) 322-340.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ScheidV., Chinese Medicine in Contemporary China, (Duke University Press, Durham and London 2002).

  • V. Scheid and H. MacPherson (eds), Integrating East Asian Medicine into Contemporary Healthcare, (Churchill Livingstone, London 2012).

  • ShinY. S., '‘30 Years of Korean Health Insurance―Its Success, Failure, and Future Directions’' (2007) 50(7) Journal of the Korean Medical Association: 568-571 [In Korean].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • The Korean Institute of Oriental Medicine, Reestablishment of the History of Korean Medicine, (The Ministry of Health and Welfare, Seoul 1995) [In Korean].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • The Korean Oriental Medical Association, The 40-Year History of the Korean Oriental Medical Association, (Pojinje, Seoul 1989) [In Korean].

  • 2

    Lei 2014.

  • 4

    Kim 2017p. 76.

  • 14

    Jung Park and Lee 2010pp. 113–14.

  • 17

    Lee 2010pp. 406–10.

  • 21

    Medical Service Act 1963. The problematic clause ‘the department of Korean medicine in a college of medicine of a national university’ was changed to ‘the department of Korean medicine in a college of medicine’.

  • 24

    Shin 2007p. 569.

  • 25

    Cho 1989pp. 468–70.

  • 26

    The Korean Oriental Medical Association 1989pp. 293–4. ‘The Korean Oriental Medical Association’ was renamed ‘the Association of Korean Medicine’ in 2012. In this paper the name ‘the Association of Korean Medicine’ is used consistently to avoid confusion.

  • 28

    The Korean Oriental Medical Association 1989pp. 297–8.

  • 29

    Bae 1984p. 1.

  • 32

    Yun 2004pp. 66–78.

  • 33

    Economic Planning Board 1972pp. 653–712.

  • 35

    Choi Park Shin and Shin 2000p. 97.

  • 36

    Economic Planning Board 1979.

  • 37

    Choi Park Shin and Shin 2000pp. 95–6.

  • 39

    Lei 2014pp. 167–92. Bianzheng lunzhi (辨證論治) is a compound word of bianzheng and lunzhi. Bianzheng means ‘pattern identification’ and lunzhi means ‘treatment determination’. Bianzheng lunzhi is often referred as bianzheng as an abbreviation.

  • 40

    Lei 2014pp. 169–77.

  • 41

    Scheid 2002pp. 203–14.

  • 43

    Lee Chae and Kim 2014pp. 39–40. Though bianzheng is generally translated into ‘pattern identification’ or ‘syndrome differentiation’ in tcm ‘symptom differentiation’ is more appropriate in Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine context for the concept byunjeung. It is because the word jeung 證 in Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine does not always mean ‘pattern’ or ‘syndrome’ but more literally means ‘symptom’ which is derived from patients.

  • 49

    Han C. H. 2008pp. 1–6.

  • 51

    Lee C. Y. 2009.

  • 52

    Kim K. W. 2009.

  • 53

    Han C. H. 2014.

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 97 79 5
Full Text Views 135 121 2
PDF Downloads 13 9 1