The Adaptation of the Treatise on Cold Damage in Eighteenth-century Japan

Text, Society, and Readers

in Asian Medicine
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

This paper examines how the Shanghanlun, translated as the Treatise on Cold Damage (i.e., the Treatise), one of the most revered Chinese medical texts of the Han dynasty, was used in Japanese traditional medicine (Kanpō 漢方), and particularly how it was reconfigured to fit with the societal shifts of the Edo period in Japan. The versatility of the Treatise in the formation of Kanpō is exemplified by the medicine of Yoshimasu Tōdō, an innovative eighteenth-century Japanese doctor. In this analysis of Tōdō’s unique interpretation of the Treatise, some of his transitional ideas about medicine, the human body, and illness, as well as the transcultural influence from China, will be elucidated. To this end, first Tōdō’s application of the Treatise will be re-defined within the historical context of changing medical needs in the consumer society of the Edo period. Secondly, by focusing on the idea of poison that forms the core of Tōdō’s theory and practice, I show how his pathology resonated with the period’s popular notions of the human body and illness, although it was said at the time to be drawn from Chinese classics. Associating Tōdō’s use of the Treatise with such phenomena as the commercialisation and popularisation of medical treatment and the popular imagination of illness, I show the applicability of the Treatise to the evolution of Kanpō in the context of the surrounding social structure and cross-cultural intellectual ebb and flow across East Asia.

The Adaptation of the Treatise on Cold Damage in Eighteenth-century Japan

Text, Society, and Readers

in Asian Medicine

Sections

References

ItōK.伊藤馨 (鳳山) Kanran shuwa 漢蘭酒話 (Talk on Kanpō and Dutch Medicine Over Drinking) Nineteenth century Kyoto University Fujikawa collection

KaibaraE.貝原益軒 Yōjōkun 養生訓 (Lessons for Nourishing Life 1713) 1991 Tokyo Iwanami Reprint annotated by K. Ishikawa 石川謙

KameiN.亀井南冥 Kokonsai irohauta 古今斎伊呂波歌 (The abcs of Kokonsai 1814) 1979 vol. 30 KKIS edition Reprint annotated by B. Terashi 寺師睦宗

KazukiG.香月牛山 Zōho eiri shōni hitsuyōki 増補絵入小児必用記 (The Essential Knowledge about Raising Children with Illustrations 1703) 1994 Tokyo Ozorasha Reprint Edojidai josei bunko 江戸時代女性文庫 4 (The Compilation of Edo-period Texts for Women)

KoizumiE.小泉榮次郎 Kuroyaki no kenkyū 黒焼の研究 (The Study of Charred Animals 1928) 1987 Tokyo Taniguchi shuppan Reprint

ManaseD.曲直瀬道三 Kirigami 切紙 (The Fragmentary Papers 1571) 1979 vol. 3 KKIS edition Reprint annotated by D. Yakazu 矢数道明

ManaseD.曲直瀬道三 Keitekishū 啓迪集 (The Text of Enlightenment 1649) 1979 vol. 1 KKIS edition Reprint annotated by D. Yakazu 矢数道明

ManaseD.曲直瀬道三 Suichikuan yōjō monogatari 雖知苦庵養生物語 (The Tale of Nourishing Life by Suichiku-an) 1832 Facsimile Tokyo: National Diet Digital Library http://dl.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/2535935.

ManaseD.曲直瀬道三 Hyakufuku zusetsu 百腹図説 (The Illustrations and Explanations of a Hundred Patterns of the Abdomen) 1986 Osaka Orient shuppan Nihon Kanpō fukushin sōsho 6 日本漢方腹診叢書 6 (The Compilation of Japanese Abdominal Diagnosis Texts 6)

MuraiC.村井琴山 Idō nisen-nen ganmokuhen 医道二千年眼目篇 (The Compilation of Enlightening the Way of Medicine After Two Thousand Years 1807) 1979 vols. 31–33 KKIS edition Reprint annotated by K. Ōtsuka 大塚敬節

NishikawaJ.西川如見 NakamuraY.中村幸彦 Kan-ni chōnin bukuro 巻二 町人嚢 (The Pouch for Merchants vol. 2 1719) 1975 Tokyo Iwanami Kinsei chōnin shisō 近世町人思想 (The Ideology of Merchants During the Edo Period) (Nihon shisō taikei 日本思想大系 59 (The Compilation of Japanese Philosophy) Reprint in

OchiaiT.落合泰蔵 Kanyō byōmei taishōroku 漢洋病名対照録 (The Comparison of Chinese-English Disease Names 1883) 1996 Tokyo Orient shuppan Facsimile Rinshō naika sōsho 臨床内科叢書 1 (The Collection of Clinical Internal Medicine Texts)

OgyūS.荻生徂徠 Seidan 政談 (The Discussion of Politics 1727) 1973 Tokyo Iwanami Nihon shisō taikei 日本思想体系 36 (The Compilation of Japanese Philosophy)

OgyūS.荻生徂徠 Ogyū Sorai’s Philosophical Masterworks: the Bendō and Benmei 2006 Hawaii University of Hawaii Center for Korean Translation of annotated eighteenth-century edition with an introduction by John A. Tucker

SugitaG.杉田玄白 Yōjō shichihuka 養生七不可 (Seven Prohibitions for Nourishing Life) 1803 available at Waseda University Digital Archives: http://archive.wul.waseda.ac.jp/kosho/bunko08/bunko08_a0213/bunko08_a0213.html.

SuzukiA.鈴木朗 Yōjō yōron 養生要論 (The Crux of Nourishing Life) 1833 available at Waseda University Digital Archives: http://archive.wul.waseda.ac.jp/kosho/ya09/ya09_00917/.

TakasakaT.高阪太郎 Yanagidaru zenshū 柳多留全集 (The Collection of Haiku Poems) 1933 vol. 1 Tokyo Association for Yanagidaru Collection 柳多留全集刊行会

TakiM.多紀元簡 Jikan dokugasho 時還読我書 (Sometimes Reading My Books Again) 1839 available at the National Diet Library Digital Library from the Meiji era http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/833235.

YamawakiT.山脇東門 Tōmon sensei zuihitsu 東門先生随筆 (The Essays of Master Tōmon c. eighteenth century) 1979 vol. 30 KKIS edition Reprint annotated by B. Terashi 寺師睦宗

YoshimasuT.吉益東洞 Yakuchō (hanpon) 薬徴 版本 (The Efficacy of Medicine original 1785) 1979 vol. 10 KKIS edition Yakuchō (ihon) 薬徴 (異本) (The Efficacy of Medicine (another version) c. 18–19th century) Yakuchō (Nangaibon) 薬徴 (南涯本) (The Efficacy of Medicine (Nangai version) c. 18–19th century). Reprint

YoshimasuT.吉益東洞 Kenshuroku 建殊録 (The Clinical Records 1763) 1979 vol. 11 KKIS edition Iji wakumon 医事惑問 (Medical Questions 1769) Tōdō sensei tōzai shōroku 東洞先生投剤證録 (The Records of Master Tōdō’s Prescriptions and Symptoms c. 18–19th century). Reprint

YoshimasuT.吉益東洞 Idan 医断 (Severing Medicine 1759) 1979 vol. 12 KKIS edition Ruijuhō 類聚方 (The Categorized Collected Formulas 1764) Hōkyoku 方極 (The Supreme Formulas 1764) Hōki 方機 (The Operation of Formulas 1811) Reprint

YoshimasuT.吉益東洞 Tōsō shinron 痘瘡新論 (The New Discussion of Smallpox) 1831 Facsimile available at Kyoto University Digital Library: http://m.kulib.kyoto-u.ac.jp/webopac/ufirdi.do?ufi_target=catdbl&ufi_locale=ja&pkey=RB00000333.

YoshimasuT.吉益東洞 Kirōen sensei hukushin jutsuhō 起老園先生腹診述法 (Describing Master Tōdō’s Abdominal Diagnosis) Eighteenth–nineteenth centuries Facsimile available at Kyoto University Digital Library: http://m.kulib.kyoto-u.ac.jp/webopac/ufirdi.do?ufi_target=catdbl&ufi_locale=ja&pkey=RB00000219.

YoshimasuT.吉益東洞 Tōdō senseike hukushinron narabini zu 東洞先生家腹診論并図 (Abdominal Diagnosis of Master Tōdō’s School: Theory and Illustrations) 18–19th century Facsimile available at Kyoto University Digital Library: http://m.kulib.kyoto-u.ac.jp/webopac/ufirdi.do?ufi_target=catdbl&ufi_locale=ja&pkey=RB00000283.

YoshimasuT.吉益東洞 Gansanhō 丸散方 (Formulary of Pills and Powders) 1809 Facsimile available at Kyoto University Digital Library: http://m.kulib.kyoto-u.ac.jp/webopac/bdyview.do?bodyid=RB00000375&elmid=Body&fname=mr7l0005.gif&lnkflg=true.

YoshimasuT.吉益東洞 ChenZunren陳存仁 Kosho igen 古書医言 (The Medical Words in Classics 1814) 1983 vol. 13 Shanghai Shanghai Zhongyi xueyuan chubanshe Reprint Huanghan yixue congshu 皇漢医学叢書 (The Collection of Imperial-Japanese Medicine Texts)

ZhangZ.張仲景 XiongManqi熊曼琪 Shanghanlun 傷寒論 (The Treatise on Cold Damage c. 219 ce) 2000 Beijing Renmin weisheng chubanshe Reprint

Anon. Watō yakushu ichiran 倭唐薬種一覧 (The List of Japanese and Chinese Drugs) Reprinted from the website of The Naito Museum of Pharmaceutical Science and Industry. Z00351–1

AokiT.青木歳幸 Zaison rangaku no kenkyū 在村蘭学の 研究 (A Study of Dutch Learning in Local Villages) 1998 Kyoto Shibunkaku

AokiT.青木歳幸 Edo jidai no igaku: mei’i tachi no sanbyaku nen 江戸時代の医学: 名医たちの三〇〇年 (Medicine in the Edo period: 300 Years of Prominent Doctors) 2012 Tokyo Yoshikawa Kobunkan

BynumW. The History of Medicine: A Very Short Introduction 2008 Oxford University of Oxford Press

ChartierR. Pratiques de la Lecture 1985 Paris Rivages

CookH. J. LindbergD.WestmanR. ‘The New Philosophy and Medicine in Seventeenth-Century England’ Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution 1990 Cambridge Cambridge University Press 397 436

DaidojiK.大道寺慶子 SuzukiA.鈴木晃仁IshizukaH.石塚久郎 ‘Edojin no shōka: yamai no sōzō no ichikōsatsu 江戸人の消化—病の想像の一考察 (The Notion of Digestion During the Edo period: An Imagination of Disease)’ Shokuji no gihō: shintai ibunkaronshū 食餌の技法—身体医文化論集 4 (The Techniques of Dietetics) 2005 Tokyo Keio University Press 147 167

DürckheimG. K. KospothS. M.HealeyE. R. Hara: Die Erdmitte des Menschen 1956 London George Allen & Unwin Ltd Hara the Vital Center of Man Translated into English by 1962

ElmanB. A. ‘Sinophiles and Sinophobes in Tokugawa Japan: Politics Classicism, and Medicine During the Eighteenth Century’ (十八世紀在徳川日本 “頌華者”和“貶華者”的問題—以中医及漢方為主) East Asian Science Technology and Society: An International Journal 2008 2 1 93 121

FuW.傅維康 KawaiM.川井正久 Chūgoku igaku no rekishi 中国医学の歴史 (The History of Chinese Medicine) 1997 Chiba Tōyōgakujutsu shuppan Japanese translation by

HanawaT.花輪壽彦 ‘[Ikki ryūtaisetsu] to [Manbyō ichidokusetsu] nitsuite 「一気留滞説」と「万病一毒説」について (On “One-ki Stagnation Theory” and “One Poison for All Diseases Theory”)’ Kanpō no rinshō 漢方の臨床 (The Kanpō Clinical Medicine) 1983 30 10 593 603

JennerM. S.R.WallisP. Medicine and the Market in England and its Colonies c. 1450–c. 1850 2007 Basingstoke, UK Palgrave Macmillan

KosotoH.小曽戸洋MayanagiM.真柳誠 Wakoku kanseki isho shūsei 16: Shōkanron kōjōben 和刻漢籍医書集成 16:傷寒論後条弁 (The Compilation of Chinese Medical Texts Reprinted in Japan 16: The Discussion of Cold Damage and Later Systematic Differentiations) 1992 Tokyo Kitasato University Oriental Medicine Research Center

KosotoH.小曽戸洋 Chūgoku igaku koten to Nihon 中国医学古典と日本 (Chinese Medical Classics and Japan) 1996 Tokyo Hanawa shobo

KuriyamaS. YamadaK.山田慶児KuriyamaS.栗山茂久 ‘Katakori kō 肩こり考 (On Stiff-shoulders)’ Rekishi no naka no yamai to igaku 歴史の中の病と医学 (Illness and Medicine in History) 1997 Kyoto Shibunkaku 37 62

KuriyamaS. ‘Translation and the History of Japanese Irritability’ Traduire Transposer Naturaliser: La Formation D’une Langue Scientifique Moderne Hors Des Frontières De L’Europe Auxixe Siècle 2004 France L’Harmattan 27 41

LiaoY.廖育群 YamadaK.山田慶児KuriyamaS.栗山茂久 ‘Shoki hukushinsho no seikaku 初期腹診書の性格 (The Characteristics of Early Abdominal Diagnosis Texts)’ Rekishi no naka no yamai to igaku 歴史の中の病と医学 (Illness and Medicine in History) 1997 Kyoto Shibunkaku 343 369

LockM. East Asian Medicine in Urban Japan: Varieties of Medical Experience 1980 California University of California Press

MatsuokaT.松岡尚則 ‘Yoshimasu Tōdō to Matsubara Ikkansai no ijutsu, iron nitsuite 吉益東洞と松原一閑斎の医術・医論について (Yoshimasu Tōdō ’s and Ikkansai Matsubara’s Arts)’ Kanpō no rinshō 漢方の臨床 (The Kanpō Clinical Medicine) 2011 58 12 2387 2403

MatsuokaT.松岡尚則 ‘Matsubara Ikkansai no ijutsu nitsuite 松原一閑斎の医術について (The Medicine of Matsubara Ikkansai)’ Kanpō no rinshō 漢方の臨床 (The Kanpō Clinical Medicine) 2012a 59 2 301 331

MatsuokaT.松岡尚則 ‘Namikawa Tenmin no shi: Arima Ryōkyū nitsuite 並河天民の師—有馬凉及について (Arima Ryōkyū: the Master of Namikawa Tenmin)’ Nihon Tōyō igaku zasshi 日本東洋医学雑誌 (Japanese Journal of Oriental Medicine) 2012b 63 6 417 427

MayanagiM.真柳誠 YamadaK.山田慶児KuriyamaS.栗山茂久S. ‘Edoki torai no Chūgoku isho to sono wakoku 江戸期渡来の中国医書とその和刻 (Chinese Medical Texts Imported During the Edo Period and Their Reprints)’ Rekishi no naka no yamai to igaku 歴史の中の病と医学 (Illness and Medicine in History) 1997 Kyoto Shibunkaku 301 340

NaganoH.長野仁TakaokaY.高岡裕 ‘Shōnishin no kigen nitsuite: Shōnishinshi no tanjō to sono rekishiteki haikei nitsuite 小児鍼の起源について: 小児鍼師の誕生とその歴史的背景 (The Origin of Paediatric Acupuncture: Its Emergence and Historical Background)’ Nihon ishigaku zasshi 日本医史学雑誌 (Journal of Japanese Medical History) 2010 56 3 387 414

NagatomoC.長友千代治 Kinsei no dokusho 近世の読書 (Reading Practices of the Edo Period) 1987 Tokyo Seishodō

NagatomoC.長友千代治 Edo jidai no shomotsu to dokusho 江戸時代の書物と読書 (Texts and Reading Practices of the Edo Period) 2001 Tokyo Tokyodō shuppan

NakayamaS.中山茂 NakayamaS. ‘Joshō 序章 (Introduction)’ Bakumatsu no yōgaku 幕末の洋学 (Western Learning in the Late Edo Period) 1984 Tokyo Minerva shobo 1 14

NomaK.野間光辰 ‘Ukiyo zōshi no dokushasō 浮世草紙の読者層 (The Readers of the Tales of Floating World)’ Bungaku 文学 (Literature) 1958 26 5 page unknown

OberländerC. HashimotoK.橋本敬造JamiC.LowellS. ‘The Modernisation of Japan’s Kanpô Medicine (1850–1950)’ East Asian Science: Tradition and Beyond 1995 Japan Kansai University Press 141 146

ŌtsukaK.大塚敬節 ‘Kaisetsu 解説 (Annotation)’ 1979 vol. 10 KKIS edition 7 38

ŌtsukaK.大塚敬節 Nihon shisō taikei 63 Kindai kagaku shisō ge Yoshimasu Tōdō kaisetsu 日本思想体系63近世科学思想・下・吉益東洞解説 (Annotation on Yoshimasu Tōdō in the Compilation of Japanese Philosophy 63: Modern Science Philosophy vol. 2) 1981 Tokyo Iwanami

ŌtsukaK.大塚敬節 Tōyō igaku 東洋医学 (Oriental Medicine) 1996 Tokyo Iwanami

ScheidV. Currents of Tradition in Chinese Medicine 1626–2006 2007 UK Eastland Press

ScheidV.BenskyD.EllisA.BaroletR. Chinese Herbal Medicine: Formulas & Strategies 2009 2nd Edition Seattle Eastland Press Inc compilers and translaters

SuzukiT.鈴木達彦 ‘Yoshimasu Tōdō jūniritsuhō no kentō 吉益東洞十二律方の検討 (Study on Juniritsuho: Tōdō Yoshimasu’s Twelve Pills and Powder Formulas)’ Kanpō Medicine 2012 63 1 15 24

TakahashiS.高橋敏 Kinsei sonraku seikatsu bunkashi josetsu: Kōzuke Kuniharanogō no kenkyū 近世村落生活文化史序説—上野国原之郷の研究 (The Introductory Cultural History of Village Life During the Edo Period: The Study of Harano-go Village in Kozuke Domain) 1990 Miraisha Tokyo

TakizawaT.瀧澤利行 Kenkō bunkaron 健康文化論 (Health Culture) 1998 Tokyo Taishūkan

TatenoM.舘野正美 Yoshimasu Tōdō [Kosho igen] no kenkyū: sono shoshi to igaku shisō 吉益東洞『古書医言』の研究—その書誌と医学思想 (The Study of Yoshimasu Tōdō’s ‘Medical Words on the Classics’: Bibliography and Medical Ideology) 2004 Tokyo Kyuko shoin

TerasawaK.寺澤捷年 Yoshimasu Tōdō no kenkyū: Nihon Kanpō sōzō no shisō 吉益東洞の研究—日本漢方創造の思想 (A Study of Yoshimasu Tōdō: The Idea of Creating Japanese Kanpō) 2012 Tokyo Iwanami

UmiharaR.海原亮 Kinsei iryō no shakaishi: chishiki gijutsu jōhō 近世医療の社会史—知識・技術・情報 (The Social History of Medicine in the Edo Period: Knowledge Techniques and Information) 2007 Tokyo Yoshikawa kobunkan

UmiharaR.海原亮 SakaiT. ‘Edojigai no igaku kyōiku 江戸時代の医学教育 (Medical Education During the Edo period)’ Nihon igaku kyōikushi 日本医学教育史 (History of Medical Education in Japan) 2012 Sendai Tohoku University Press 1 33

WuYi ‘A Medical Line of Many Masters: A Prosopographical Study of Liu Wansu and His Disciples from the Jin to the Early Ming’ Chinese Science 11 47

YamadaK.山田慶児 Chūgoku igaku wa ikani tsukuraretaka 中国医学はいかにつくられたか (How Was Chinese Medicine Established?) 1999 Tokyo Iwanami shoten

YamadaK.山田慶児 ‘Hankagaku toshiteno Kohōha igaku 反科学としての古方派医学 (The Medicine of the Ancient Formulas Current as Anti-science)’ Shisō 思想 (Ideology) 2006 May 985 26 63

YamawakiT.山脇悌二郎 Kinsei nihon no iyaku bunka 近世日本の医薬文化 (The Culture of Medicine and Drugs in Pre-modern Japan) 1995 Tokyo Heibonsha

YokotaF.横田冬彦 YokoyamaT.横山俊夫 ‘Ekikenbon no dokusha 益軒本の読者 (The Readers of Ekiken’s Texts)’ Kaibara Ekiken: tenchi waraku no bunmeigaku 貝原益軒-天地和楽の文明学 (Kaibara Ekiken – Studies of the Civilization of Heaven and Earth) 1995 Heibonsha Tokyo 315 353

YokotaF.横田冬彦 ‘Kinsei minshū shakai ni okeru chiteki dokusho no seiritsu 近世民衆社会における知的読書の成立 (The Establishment of a Literary Audience Among the Common People During the Edo Period)’ Edo no shisō: dokusho no shakaishi 江戸の思想 5: 読書の社会史 (The Ideas of the Edo Period: the Social History of Reading 5) 1996 Perikan Tokyo 48 67

YokotaF.横田冬彦 ‘Kinsei sonraku shakai ni okeru [chi] no mondai 近世村落社会における<知>の問題 (The Issue of “Knowledge” in the Village Society During the Edo Period)’ Hisutoria ヒストリア (Historia) 1998 159 1 27

YuX.兪雪如 ‘Zhejiang yiwenhua dui Riben hanfang yixue de yingxiang’ 江浙医文化対日本漢方医学的影响 (The Influence of Medical Culture in the Zhejiang Region on Japanese Kanpō)’ Zhejiang zhongyi zazhi 浙江中医雑誌 (The Journal of Chinese Medicine in Zhejiang) 1995 May 235 236

YuX.兪雪如 Ke Qin, Zhou Nan, yu Jiyi Dongtong zhi [Leiju fang] ji Zhou Nan qiren kao’ 柯琴, 周南与吉益東洞之[類聚方] 曁周南其人考 (‘A Study of Ke Qin, Zhou Nan, and Yoshinasu Tōdō’s [Collection of Prescriptions] and of Zhou Nan himself) Yiguwen zhi 医古文知識 (The Knowledge About Classic Medical Texts) 2001 May 27 29

1

Chartier 1985pp. 87–146.

2

Bynum 2008pp. 19–42.

4

Yamada 1999pp. 165–66.

6

Kosoto 1996pp. 265–310; Mayanagi 1997 pp. 301–40.

7

Oberländer 1995pp. 141–46.

11

Yoshimasu 1983Kosho igen 古書医言 (Medical Words in Classics 1814) p. 1.

12

Elman 2008pp. 108–10.

14

Terasawa 2012pp. 66–71; Matsuoka (et al.) 2011 pp. 2387–2403; Matsuoka (et al.) 2012a pp. 301–31; Matsuoka (et al.) 2012b pp. 417–27.

15

Ogyū 2006Benmei p. 174.

16

Terasawa 2012pp. 33–4.

17

Yoshimasu 1979Idan 医断 (Severing Medicine 1759) ‘Death and Life’ (shisei 死生).

20

Yoshimasu 1979Iji wakumon 医事惑問 (Medical Questions 1769) kan-ge 巻下.

21

Murai 1979Idō nisen-nen ganmokuhen 医道二千年眼目篇 (The Compilation of Enlightening the Way of Medicine After Two Thousand Years 1807) ‘Chapter 10: Categorized Collected Formulas’ (Kan 10: Ruijuhō 巻十類聚方).

22

Taki 1839Jikan dokugasho 時還読我書 (Sometimes Reading My Books Again) p. 442.

24

Terasawa 2012pp. 163–64.

26

Yokota 1995pp. 315–53; 1996 pp. 48–67; 1998 pp. 1–27.

28

Cook 1990pp. 411–12.

29

Takasaka 1933Yanagidaru zenshū 柳多留全集 (The Collection of Haiku Poems) p. 627.

30

Takahashi 1990pp. 13–14.

31

Nishikawa 1975Kan-ni chōnin bukuro 巻二 町人嚢 (The Pouch for Merchants vol. 2 1719) p. 101.

32

Aoki 1998pp. 94–122; Umihara 2007 pp. 138–284.

33

Nakayama 1984Introduction pp. 4–5.

34

Ogyū 1973Seidan 政談 (The Discussion of Politics 1727) p. 300.

37

Manase 1979Kirigami 切紙 (The Fragmentary Papers 1571) p. 7.

38

Oberländer 1995pp. 141–46.

39

Lock 1980p. 54.

40

Manase 1979Keitekishū 啓迪集 (The Text of Enlightenment 1649) ‘Section on Vomiting and Vomiting Blood’ (Ōketsu toketsu mon 嘔血吐血門).

41

Yoshimasu 1979Kenshuroku 建殊録 (The Clinical Records 1763) p. 243.

43

For example see Umihara 2012pp. 5–9.

44

Yoshimasu 1979Iji wakumon 医事惑問 (Medical Questions 1769) p. 20.

45

Yoshimasu 1979Iji wakumon 医事惑問 (Medical Questions 1769) preface p. 24.

46

Ibid. p. 37.

47

Yoshimasu 1983Kosho igen 古書医言 (The Medical Words in Classics 1814) p. 21.

48

Tateno 2004pp. 100–250.

49

Ōtsuka 1981pp. 371–2.

50

Yamada 2006p. 53.

51

Lock 1980p. 55.

52

Hanawa 1983p. 10; Yamada 2006 pp. 26–63.

53

Terasawa 2012pp. 24–32.

54

Yoshimasu 1979Idan 医断 (Severing Medicine 1759) p. 29.

55

Takizawa 1998pp. 18–42.

56

Kaibara 1991Yōjōkun 養生訓 (Lessons for Nourishing Life 1713) ‘Chapter 4’ (kan 巻).

57

Daidoji 2005pp. 141–67.

60

Yoshimasu 1979Kenshuroku 建殊録 (The Clinical Records 1763) Appendix of Clinical Records p. 291.

61

Suzuki 2012pp. 15–24.

62

Kazuki 1994Zōho eiri shōni hitsuyōki 増補絵入小児必用記 (The Essential Knowledge about Raising Children with Illustrations 1703) ‘Chapter 3’ (kan 巻).

63

Yoshimasu 1979Idan 医断 (Severing Medicine 1759) ‘innate poison’ (taidoku 胎毒).

64

For example Koizumi 1987Kuroyaki no kenkyū 黒焼の研究 (The Study of Charred Animals 1928) examines that charred animals which Tōdō also favoured were popular and often used as detoxifying drug during the Edo period. The popularity of purgative drugs such as rhubarb and ephedra is pointed out by Yamawaki 1995 pp. 225–34.

66

Yoshimasu 1831Tōsō shinron 痘瘡新論 (The New Discussion of Smallpox).

69

Yoshimasu 1809Gansanhō 丸散方 (The Formulas of Pills and Powders).

70

Yoshimasu 1979Idan 医断 (Severing Medicine 1759) p. 19.

71

Manase 1986Hyakufuku zusetsu 百腹図説 (Illustration and Explanation of One Hundred Abdomens early seventeenth century) p. 6.

73

Liao 1997pp. 343–69.

74

Kuriyama 1997pp. 52–57.

76

Ochiai 1996Kanyō byōmei taishōroku 漢洋病名対照録 (The Comparison of Chinese-English Disease Names 1883) pp. 74 81 198.

77

See for example Kuriyama 2004pp. 27–41.

81

Ōtsuka 1996pp. 27–28.

82

Yamada 2006p. 59.

83

For instance Jenner and Wallis (eds) 2007.

Figures

  • View in gallery
    Anon., The List of Japanese and Chinese Drugs (Watō yakushu ichiran 倭唐薬種一覧). The Naito Museum of Pharmaceutical Science and Industry): In this advertising pamphlet, the horn of narwhal, theriaca, and the horn of antelope are ranked as one of the senior (fifth) grades of ‘sumo wrestlers’ (maegashira 前頭), while the bear gallbladder was one of the judges.

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 14 14 3
Full Text Views 17 17 11
PDF Downloads 3 3 1
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0