Herbalised Ayurveda?

Reformulation, Plant Management and the ‘Pharmaceuticalisation’ of Indian ‘Traditional’ Medicine

in Asian Medicine
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

This paper discusses one dimension of the contemporary industrialisation of ayurvedic medicine, namely the new centrality given to the collection, combination, and mass-manipulation of herbal therapeutic material. The aim is to highlight the process of ‘pharmaceuticalisation’, too often and wrongly taken as synonymous of a form of alignment of Ayurveda with biomedicine, its categories, and practices. Within this context, pharmaceuticalisation refers to the creation of a new world of professionals beside ayurvedic doctors, often personnel of the industry, whose role is to handle the material (rather than the clinical) dimensions of polyherbal preparations. This management of plants includes multiple dimensions: documentation of their uses, experimental research on their composition and properties, design of new simplified combinations, mass-production of ready-made specialties, and marketing. In other words, it encompasses all the attributes of pharmacy as it developed in Europe, but with the major caveat that this pharmacy has little to do with chemistry, pure substances, and molecules, since it focuses on plants, their combination, and their value as materia medica. The paper focuses on the series of institutions, policies, and practices regarding plant management that have emerged since 2000 with a special interests in a) the ways ‘old’ settings like the botanical garden have taken the turn toward industrial Ayurveda; b) how the operations of ‘new’ institutions, such as the National Medicinal Plant Board, have been mandated to foster supply of as well as research on ‘prioritised’ species.

Asian Medicine

Journal of the International Association for the Study of Traditional Asian Medicine

Sections

References

BanerjeeM. Power, Knowledge, Medicine: Ayurvedic Pharmaceuticals at Home and in the World 2009 Hyderabad Orient Blackswan

BodeM. Taking Traditional Medicine to the Market: The Modern Image of the Ayurvedic and Unani Industry 1980–2000 2008 Hyderabad Orient Longman

CalvertJ.JolyP.-B. ‘How Did the Gene Become a Chemical Compound: The Ontology of the Gene and the Patenting of DNA?’ Social Science Information 2011 50 2 157 177

FarquharJ.RajanK.S. ‘Introduction’ East Asian Science Technology and Society 2014 8 4 383 389

GaudillièreJ.-P. ‘Une Marchandise Scientifique? Savoirs, Industrie et Régulation du Médicament dans l’Allemagne des Années Trente’ Annales—Histoire, Sciences Sociales 2010 65 1 89 120

GaudillièreJ.-P. ‘An Indian Path to Biocapital? Traditional Knowledge Inventories, Intellectual Property and the Reformulation of Ayurvedic Drugs’ East Asian Science, Technology and Society 2014 8 4 391 415

GaudillièreJ.-P.KevlesD.RheinbergerH.-J. Living Properties: Making Knowledge and Controlling Ownership in the History of Biology 2009 Berlin Max Planck Institute for History of Science, Preprint 382

GaudillièreJ.-P.HessV. Ways of Regulating Drugs in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries 2013 Basingstoke, UK Palgrave Macmillan

GovindarajanR.VijayakumarM.PushpangadanP. ‘Antioxidant Approach to Diseases Management and the Role of “Rasayana” Herbs of Ayurveda’ Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2005 99 165 178

KevlesD. A History of Patenting Life in the United States with Comparative Attention to Europe and Canada 2002 Report to European Group on Ethics, Science and New Technology, Brussels: European Commission

MathewP. J.ThomasM. T. Medicinal Plant Resource of Kerala 2007 Thiruvananthapuram TBGRI (Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute)

Ministry of Health Report of the Committee on Indigenous Systems of Medicine 1948 New Delhi Government of India

National Medicinal Plant Board (nmpb) Centrally Sponsored Scheme of National Mission on Medicinal Plants 2008a New Delhi Government of India

National Medicinal Plant Board (nmpb) Agro-Techniques of Selected Medicinal Plants 2008b New Delhi Government of India

National Medicinal Plant Board (nmpb) Good Agricultural Practices for Medicinal Plants 2009 New Delhi Government of India

National Medicinal Plant Board (nmpb) Good Agricultural Practices Standards for Medicinal Plants Requirements 2011 New Delhi Government of India

Planning Commission Report of the Task Force on Conservation and Sustainable Use of Medicinal Plants 2000 New Delhi Government of India

PordiéL.GaudillièreJ.-P. ‘The Reformulation Regime in Drug Discovery: Revisiting Polyherbals and Property Rights in the Ayurvedic Industry’ East Asian Science, Technology and Society 2014 8 57 79

PushpangadanP.RajasekharanS.RatheshkumarP. K. ‘Arogyappacha (Trichopus zeylanicus) the “Ginseng” of Kani Tribe of Agashyar Hills (Kerala) for Ever Green Health and Vitality’ Ancient Science of Life 1988 viii 13 16

PushpangadanP.RajasekharanP.RatheshkumarK. Amrithapala (Janakia arayalpatra) A New Drug from the Kani tribe of Kerala’ Ancient Science of Life 1990 IX 215 219

SahuS. K. Technology Transfer, Dependence, and Self-Reliant Development in the Third World. The Pharmaceutical and Machine Tools Industry in India 1997 London Preager

SharmaA. K.PushpangadanP.ChoprC. L. ‘Adaptogenic Activity of Seeds of Trichopus Zylanicus, the Ginseng of Kerala’ Ancient Science of Life 1989 viii 212 219

SivaramakrishnanK. Old Potions, New Bottles. Recasting Indigenous Medicine in Colonial Punjab, 1850–1945 2006 Hyderabad Orient Longman

VarierR. M. R. The Rediscovery of Ayurveda: The Story of Arya Vaidya Sala Kottakal 2002 New Delhi Viking

VerdD. K.GorayaG. S. Demand and Supply of Medicinal Plants in India 2008 Bangalore Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions

2

Sahu 1997.

3

Gaudillière 2014.

5

Pordié and Gaudillière 2014.

6

Banerjee 2009, p. 288.

7

Ibid., p. 290.

8

Gaudillière and Hess (eds) 2013.

9

Gaudillière 2010.

10

Indian Ministry of Health 1948.

14

Mathew and Thomas 2007.

15

Mathew and Thomas 2007, p. 16. (courtesy of tbgri).

16

Pushpangadan et al. 1988, pp. 13–16.

25

Gaudillière 2014.

26

Indian Patent Office 2010, Patent Number 193609.

29

National Medicinal Plant Board 2007, p. 5 (Note for Lok Shaba).

30

Planning Commission Task Force 2000, p. 6.

31

Banerjee 2009; Bode 2008.

32

Planning Commission Task Force 2000, p. 101.

33

Gaudillière 2014.

36

Planning Commission Task Force 2000, p. 138.

40

Verd and Goraya 2008.

43

Pordié and Gaudillière 2014.

46

Gujarat Forest Department 2007, A Project on Conservation and Development for Guggal in Gujarat, pp. 10 and 16, accessible online at National Medicinal Plants Board, nmpb.nic.in/WriteReadData/links/565284450725th-SFC-Minutes.pdf, last accessed 4 November 2013.

47

Gujarat Forest Department 2007, p. 21.

54

Verd and Goraya 2008.

55

Ibid., p. 125.

57

Gujarat Forest Department 2007, op. cit. p. 23.

63

Verd and Goraya 2008, p. 69.

Figures

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 20 20 9
Full Text Views 5 5 5
PDF Downloads 0 0 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0