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再論 “陰出陽收” —— 從語言接觸的角度看

Rethinking Yinchuyangshou from the Perspective of Language Contact

In: Bulletin of Chinese Linguistics
Author: Menghui Shi1,2
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This paper provides an explanation for yinchuyangshou 陰出陽收 in Duquxuzhi 度曲須知 written by Shen Chongsui 沈寵綏 in the Ming Dynasty. Based on the reconstruction, we propose that yinchuyangshou is designed to help speakers of the Wu dialects to learn the sound feature [voiceless fricative] in Mandarin. This explanation not only reflects the contact between Mandarin and Wu dialects, but is also in keeping with the acoustic analysis of xia 匣 initial in the modern Suzhou dialect.

本文主要認為沈寵綏《度曲須知》中所謂“陰出陽收”之概念,是要求吳人在唱曲時,注意某些字需要向當時已經發生濁音清化、並有“平送仄不送”的北方官話學習[清擦音]的特徵,這是“陰出”;而“陽收”則是指保持吳語本有陽平聲調的發音特性。“陰出陽收”和吳語的“清音濁流”關係不大。文章從沈氏論著的內部證據出發,按照其標注體系的一致性,結合現代語音學的分類,歸納出630個例字在北方話中都含有[清擦音]的統一聲學特徵。又從今蘇州方言的角度出發,通過歷時比較,證明了這種觀點。最後分析了蘇州方言匣母字的歷時變化,認為“陰出陽收”與今蘇州部分匣母 [hɦ] 的讀音有關,是一種人為的語言接觸,明朝中葉蘇州方言的匣母字應該就是吳語的原生一分類型 [ɦ]。(This article is in Chinese.)

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