1 Programa de Pós Graduação em Biodiversidade Animal, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima 1000, Camobi, CEP 97105-900, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Visual communication has evolved independently in several families of frogs and is complex in diurnal stream frogs. In addition to isolated visual and acoustic signals, some species may emit multimodal displays characterized by the association of these signals. Through the analysis of focal recordings obtained in situ in southern Brazil, we investigated the visual and multimodal communication in the diurnal stream frog Crossodactylus schmidti. We found a complex visual repertoire of nine signals used in intraspecific communication, of which the signal Both legs kicking was described for the first time. Males, females and juveniles emitted visual signals, but males had a larger repertoire and used most signals in agonistic interactions. The four most common visual signals, Toe flagging, Limb lifting, Body jerking and Running-jumping, were emitted predominantly upon rocks in the stream bed. The emission of isolated visual and acoustic signals, as well as audiovisual displays with simultaneous or temporally coupled components, demonstrates that the communication in C. schmidti is complex and that the multimodal displays may have different functions. We discuss the historical, behavioural, ecological factors which may have influenced the evolution of the visual repertoire of C. schmidti, and how the ritualization of derived activities similar to visual signals may have led to the evolution of part of the repertoire. This study provides novel results on visual and multimodal communication for the genus Crossodactylus and demonstrates that C. schmidti represents an appropriate model for studies of complex displays.
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