Can fruiting plants control animal behaviour and seed dispersal distance?

in Behaviour
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In an Afrotropical forest, we tested the hypothesis that fleshy-fruit plants with interspecific differences in fruit quality and quantity affect ranging behaviour of their seed dispersal vector. If fruiting plants could affect their dispersal vector, the plants also affect their seed dispersal distance and eventually their plant population biology. From 2007 to 2011, we measured seed transport by georeference daily bonobo group movements via GPS. Seed dispersal distance was estimated with mechanistic model, using 1200 georeferenced dispersal events and the average seed transit time through bonobo (24.00 h). We compared dissemination for eight plant species that deal with this trade-off: attracting dispersers by means of fruit quality/quantity versus retaining them in the patch because of the same quality/quantity value that attracted them. Because fruit traits of these eight species were different, we expected a difference in seed dispersal distance. Surprisingly, seed dispersal distances induced by bonobos were not affected by fruit traits. Although fruit nutrient contents, abundance and average patch feeding duration differed between plant species, patch feeding time was not related to subsequent dispersal distances. The apes’ dispersal distance survey gave an average dispersal distance estimated of 1332 ± 24 m from the parent plant (97.9% > 100 m). To conclude, feeding time invested in the patch, fruit quality and abundance had no apparent effect on bonobo seed dispersal distance. The possible effects in plant population biology are discussed.

Can fruiting plants control animal behaviour and seed dispersal distance?

in Behaviour

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References

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Figures

  • View in gallery

    An habituated and identified bonobo of the party (here Emil) is swallowing the fruits and seeds of Dialium sp. at LuiKotale, DRC. The party is geolocalised at this point and continuously during 24 h (with GPS track log, including at least Emil) for an estimation of this seed dispersal event. Photo by LKBP/David Beaune. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/1568539x.

  • View in gallery

    Illustration of the mechanistic seed dispersal model with an example of seed transport (Gambeya lacourtiana). Identified bonobo feeding trees were georeferenced during group observations (2007–2011, LuiKotale, DRC) and bonobo group movement daily recorded (dark track log). Theoretical seed deposition site were determined by actual bonobo group position (dark track log) after 24.00 h, corresponding to the average transit time for seed through bonobo.

  • View in gallery

    There is no correlation between feeding time spent by the bonobo group on the fruiting plant and the dispersal distance induced by the group after 24 h. For 22 fruiting species analysed as whole (N=278, r=0.07, p=0.2422) or other species as Dialium sp. (122, r=0.01, p=0.8572) or Cissus dinklagei (50, r=0.22, p=0.1178) at LuiKotale, DRC. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/1568539x.

  • View in gallery

    Seed dispersal distribution induced by bonobo based on group movement behaviour (N=1200 dispersal events with all plant species at LuiKotale, DRC) and fixed bonobo transport duration (transit time = 24.00 h).

  • View in gallery

    Seed dispersal distances induced by bonobo group for eight plant species (Cissus dinklagei (N=173), Dialium sp. (362), Gambeya lacourtiana (56), Grewia sp. (97), Pancovia laurentii (73), Placodiscus paniculatus (48), Polyalthia suaveolens (61), Treculia africana (21)) at LuiKotale, DRC.

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