Individuals cope differently to challenging and stressful situations. Being inverted is challenging and stressful for animals, as the position leaves them vulnerable to predators and desiccation. Although sea star self-righting was first studied in the 19th century, efforts to quantify patterns of within-individual consistency and among-individual differences are limited. Here we examined the performance and repeatability of righting behaviour in the Caribbean sea star (Oreaster reticulatus). Oreaster reticulatus were wild caught and transported to a nearby facility where they were inverted up to five times. Most animals improved their righting times and exhibited within-individual consistency and among individual differences in righting method. We posit that it may be favourable to employ a consistent righting method to effectively achieve an upright position. Predation pressure and stress physiology are hypothesized to shape individual differences in righting behaviour. Moreover, these results provide preliminary evidence of personality in sea stars.
Sexual dimorphism in steppe tortoises (Testudo horsfieldii): influence of the environment and sexual selection on body shape and mobility. —
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A study of the temporary adhesion of the podia in the sea star Asterias rubens (Echinodermata, Asteroidea) through their footprints. —
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Coping styles in animals: current status in behavior and stress-physiology. —
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Is boldness a resource-holding potential trait? Fighting prowess and changes in startle response in the sea anemone, Actinia equina. —
Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci.279: