The study of social learning in non-human animals has advanced beyond attempts to determine which animals are capable of learning socially to investigations of the factors that influence transmission. Capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp.) are adept social learners of various behaviours including extractive foraging techniques and social customs. Here, we conducted an open diffusion experiment to determine whether capuchins would learn an arbitrary convention from a knowledgeable demonstrator. In addition, we investigated whether rank, sex and social context affected acquisition and expression of the behaviour. Participation in the experiment was strongly influenced by dominance rank in the group setting. However, when tested individually, the majority of individuals participated and faithfully copied the convention that was seeded into their group. Our findings demonstrate that capuchins can acquire an arbitrary convention via social learning, but that social context must be carefully considered in studies of social learning.
Social influences on the acquisition of sex-typical foraging patterns by juveniles in a group of wild tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus nigritus). —
Am. J. Primatol.65:
Social conventions in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys: evidence for traditions in a Neotropical primate. —
Discovering culture in birds: the role of learning and development. — In:
Animal social complexity: intelligence culture and individualized societies (
de WaalF.B.M.TyackP.L. eds). Harvard University PressCambridge, MA p.