The metacommunication hypothesis asserts that some elements of play behaviour are associated with play elements borrowed from aggression and interpret these aggression-like elements as playful. Using data from free living Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus), we tested three predictions that follow from the metacommunication hypothesis: (i) aggression-like elements (ALEs) abbreviate play bouts; (ii) candidate signal elements are sequentially associated with ALEs; (iii) associations of candidate signal elements with ALEs prolong play bouts. Play face and five other candidate signal elements were evaluated in relation to nine ALEs. We confirmed all three predictions for play face, albeit only if the play face and/or the ALEs occurred at the start of the play bout. The other candidate elements were not associated with ALEs. We conclude that play face fulfils the metacommunicatory function in Hanuman langur play bouts, while other play specific elements may serve other signal or non-signal functions.
Are 50-khz calls used as play signals in the playful interactions of rats? I. Evidence from the timing and context of their use. —
Are 50-kHz calls used as play signals in the playful interactions of rats? II. Evidence from the effects of devocalization. —
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The use of the bared-teeth display during play fighting in tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana): sometimes it is all about oneself. —
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Targets and tactics of play fighting: competitive versus cooperative styles of play in Japanese and Tonkean macaques. —
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