On potential links between inequity aversion and the structure of interactions for the evolution of cooperation

in Behaviour
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.

Help

 

Have Institutional Access?

Login with your institution. Any other coaching guidance?

Connect

Despite the fact that most models of cooperation assume equal outcomes between individuals, in real life it is likely rare that this is the case. Does it make a difference for our understanding of the evolution of cooperation? Following a taxonomy of cooperation concepts that focuses on costs and benefits, we explore this question by considering the degree to which inequity aversion may provide one mechanism to stabilize cooperation. We suggest a key role for inequity aversion in some contexts in both biological markets and direct reciprocity, and highlight the potentially unique role of positive inequity aversion for human reputation games. Nevertheless, a key challenge is to determine how different animal species perceive the payoff structure of their interactions, how they see their interaction with their partners, and the degree to which simpler mechanisms, like contrast effects or the associative learning seen in optimal foraging, may produce similar outcomes.

Sections
References
  • AxelrodR.M. (1984). The evolution of cooperation. — Basic BooksNew York, NY.

  • BaumardN.AndréJ.-B.SperberD. (2013). A mutualistic approach to morality: the evolution of fairness by partner choice. — Behav. Brain. Sci. 36: 59-78.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BergmüllerR.TaborskyM. (2005). Experimental manipulation of helping in a cooperative breeder: helpers “pay to stay” by pre-emptive appeasement. — Anim. Behav. 69: 19-28.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BoeschC. (1994). Cooperative hunting in wild chimpanzees. — Anim. Behav. 48: 653-667.

  • BoeschC. (2002). Cooperative hunting roles among Tai chimpanzees. — Human Nature 13: 27-46.

  • BorgeaudC.BsharyR. (2015). Wild vervet monkeys trade short-term tolerance and specific coalitionary support for grooming in experimentally induced conflicts. — Curr. Biol. 25: 3011-3016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BrauerJ.CallJ.TomaselloM. (2007). Chimpanzees really know what others can see in a competitive situation. — Anim. Cogn. 10: 439-448.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BräuerJ.CallJ.TomaselloM. (2009). Are apes inequity averse? New data on the token-exchange paradigm. — Am. J. Primatol. 71: 175-181.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BräuerJ.HanusD. (2012). Fairness in non-human primates?Soc. Justice Res. 25: 256-276.

  • BrosnanS.F. (2006a). At a crossroads of disciplines. — Soc. Justice Res. 19: 218-227.

  • BrosnanS.F. (2006b). Nonhuman species’ reactions to inequity and their implications for fairness. — Soc. Justice Res. 19: 153-185.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BrosnanS.F. (2010). What do capuchin monkeys tell us about cooperation? — In: For the greater good of all: perspectives on individualism society and leadership perspectives on individualism society and leadership. Jepson studies in leadership series ( ForsythD.R.HoytC.L. eds). Palgrave MacmillanNew York, NY p.  11-28.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BrosnanS.F. (2013). Justice and fairness related behaviors in non-human primates. — Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110: 10416-10423.

  • BrosnanS.F. (2014). Evidence for moral behaviors in non-human primates. — In: Empirically informed ethics: morality between facts and norms ( ChristenM.van SchaikC.P.FischerJ.HuppenbauerM.TannerC. eds). SpringerBerlin p.  85-98.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BrosnanS.F.de WaalF.B.M. (2002). A proximate perspective on reciprocal altruism. — Human Nature 13: 129-152.

  • BrosnanS.F.de WaalF.B.M. (2009). Cebus apella tolerate intermittent unreliability in human experimenters. — Int. J. Primatol. 30: 663-674.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BrosnanS.F.de WaalF.B.M. (2014). Evolution of responses to (un)fairness. — Science 346: 1251776.

  • BrosnanS.F.SchiffH.C.de WaalF.B.M. (2005). Tolerance for inequity may increase with social closeness in chimpanzees. — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. 272: 253-258.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BrosnanS.F.FreemanC.de WaalF.B.M. (2006). Partner’s behavior, not reward distribution, determines success in an unequal cooperative task in capuchin monkeys. — Am. J. Primatol. 68: 713-724.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BrosnanS.F.TalbotC.AhlgrenM.LambethS.P.SchapiroS.J. (2010). Mechanisms underlying responses to inequitable outcomes in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. — Anim. Behav. 79: 1229-1237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BrosnanS.F.HopperL.M.RicheyS.FreemanH.D.TalbotC.F.GoslingS.D.LambethS.P.SchapiroS.J. (2015). Personality influences responses to inequity and contrast in chimpanzees. — Anim. Behav. 101: 75-87.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BrownJ.L. (1983). Cooperation — a biologist’s dilemma. — Adv. Stud. Behav. 13: 1-39.

  • BsharyR.BergmullerR. (2008). Distinguishing four fundamental approaches to the evolution of helping. — J. Evol. Biol. 21: 405-420.

  • BsharyR.GrutterA.S. (2006). Image scoring and cooperation in cleaner fish mutualism. — Nature 441: 975-978.

  • BsharyR.HohnerA.Ait-El-DjoudiK.FrickeH. (2006). Interspecific communicative and coordinated hunting between groupers and giant moray eels in the Red Sea. — PLoS Biol. 4: 2393-2398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BsharyR.GrutterA.S.WillenerA.S.T.LeimarO. (2008). Pairs of cooperating cleaner fish provide better service quality than singletons. — Nature 455: 964-967.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BullingerA.F.MelisA.P.TomaselloM. (2011). Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, prefer indivdiual over collaborative strategies towards goals. — Anim. Behav. 82: 1135-1141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CheneyD.L.MoscoviceL.R.HeesenM.MundryR.SeyfarthR.M. (2010). Contingent cooperation between wild female baboons. — Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107: 9562-9566.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ConnorR.C. (1995). Impala allogrooming and the parcelling model of reciprocity. — Anim. Behav. 49: 528-530.

  • CrofootM.C.RubensteinD.I.MaiyaA.S.Berger-WolfT.Y. (2011). Aggression, grooming and group-level cooperation in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus): insights from social networks. — Am. J. Primatol. 73: 821-833.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CuthillI.C.HoustonA.I. (1997). Managing time and energy. — In: Behavioural ecology: an evolutionary approach4th edn. ( KrebsJ.R.DaviesN.B. eds). Wiley-BlackwellCambridge p.  97-120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de WaalF.B.M.BergerM.L. (2000). Payment for labour in monkeys. — Nature 404: 563.

  • de WaalF.B.M.DavisJ.M. (2003). Capuchin cognitive ecology: cooperation based on projected returns. — Neuropsychology 41: 221-228.

  • DugatkinL.A. (1997). Cooperation among animals: an evolutionary perspective. — Oxford University PressNew York, NY.

  • FehrE.FischbacherU. (2004). Third-party punishment and social norms. — Evol. Human Behav. 25: 63-87.

  • FehrE.SchmidtK.M. (1999). A theory of fairness, competition, and cooperation. — Q. J. Econ. 114: 817-868.

  • FischerE.A. (1988). Simultaneous hermaphroditism, tit-for-tat, and the evolutionary stability of social systems. — Ethol. Sociobiol. 9: 119-136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FlackJ.de WaalF.B.M. (2000). “Any animal whatever”: Darwinian building blocks of morality in monkeys and apes. — J. Conscious. Stud. 7: 1-29.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FreidinE.CuelloM.I.KacelnikA. (2009). Successive negative contrast in a bird: starlings’ behaviour after unpredictable negative changes in food quality. — Anim. Behav. 77: 857-865.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GadzaS.K.ConnorR.C.EdgarR.K.CoxF. (2005). A division of labour with role specialization in group-hunting bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) off Cedar Key, Florida. — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. 272: 135-140.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GilbyI.C. (2006). Meat sharing among the Gombe chimpanzees: harassment and reciprocal exchange. — Anim. Behav. 71: 953-963.

  • Gros-LuisJ.PerryS.MansonJ.H. (2003). Violent coalitionary attacks and intraspecific killing in wild white-faced capuhins monkeys (Cebus capucinus). — Primates 44: 341-346.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HeilM.McKeyD. (2003). Protective ant–plant interactions as model systems in ecological and evolutionary research. — Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 34: 425-553.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HopperL.M.LambethS.P.SchapiroS.J.BrosnanS.F. (2013). When given the opportunity, chimpanzees maximize personal gain rather than “level the playing field”.PeerJ 1: e165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HopperL.M.LambethS.P.SchapiroS.J.BrosnanS.F. (2014). Social comparison mediates chimpanzees’ responses to loss, not frustration. — Anim. Cogn. 17: 1303-1311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HorowitzA. (2012). Fair is fine, but more is better: limits to inequity aversion in the domestic dog. — Soc. Justice Res. 25: 195-212.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JensenK. (2010). Punishment and spite, the dark side of cooperation. — Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. 365: 2635-2650.

  • JohnstoneR.A.BsharyR. (2002). From parasitism to mutualism: partner control in asymmetric interactions. — Ecol. Lett. 5: 634-639.

  • JohnstoneR.A.BsharyR. (2008). Mutualism, market effects and partner control. — J. Evol. Biol. 21: 879-888.

  • KiersE.T.RousseauR.A.WestS.A.DenisonR.F. (2003). Host sanctions and the legume–Rhizobium mutualism. — Nature 425: 78-81.

  • KramsI.KramaT.IgauneK.MändR. (2008). Experimental evidence of reciprocal altruism in the pied flycatcher. — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 62: 599-605.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LamprechtJ. (1978). The relationship between food competition and foraging group size in some larger carnivores. A hypothesis. — Z. Tierpsychol. 46: 337-343.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MassenJ.J.M.Van Den BergL.M.SpruijtB.M.SterckE.H.M. (2012). Inequity aversion in relation to effort and relationship quality in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). — Am. J. Primatol. 74: 145-156.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGregorP.K. (1993). Signalling in territorial systems: a context for individual identification, ranging and eavesdropping. — Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. 340: 237-244.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGregorP.K. (2005). Animal communication networks. — Cambridge University PressCambridge.

  • McNamaraJ.M.BartaZ.HoustonA.I. (2004). Variation in behaviour promotes cooperation in the prisoner’s dilemma game. — Nature 428: 745-748.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MelisA.P.HareB.TomaselloM. (2006a). Chimpanzees recruit the best collaborators. — Science 311: 1297-1300.

  • MelisA.P.HareB.TomaselloM. (2006b). Engineering cooperation in chimpanzees: tolerance constraints on cooperation. — Anim. Behav. 72: 275-286.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MelisA.P.HareB.TomaselloM. (2009). Chimpanzees coordinate in a negotiation game. — Evol. Human Behav. 30: 381-392.

  • NoëR.HammersteinP. (1995). Biological markets. — Trends Ecol. Evol. 10: 336-339.

  • NoëR.van HooffJ.A.R.A.M.HammersteinP. (2001). Economics in nature. — Cambridge University PressCambridge.

  • PackerC. (1988). Constraints on the evolution of reciprocity: lessons from cooperative hunting. — Ethol. Sociobiol. 9: 137-147.

  • PellmyrO.HuthC.J. (1994). Evolutionary stability of mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths. — Nature 372: 257-260.

  • PerryS.MansonJ.H.DowerG.WikbertE. (2003). White-faced capuchins cooperate to rescue a groupmate from a Boa constrictor. — Folia. Primatol. 74: 109-111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PerryS.RoseL. (1994). Begging and transfer of coati meat by white-faced capuchin monkeys, Cebus capucinus. — Primates 35: 409-415.

  • PierceN.E.BrabyM.F.HeathA.LohmanD.J.MathewJ.RandD.B.TravassosM.A. (2002). The ecology and evolution of ant association in the Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera). — Annu. Rev. Entomol. 47: 733-771.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PriceS.A.BrosnanS.F. (2012). To each according to his need? Variability in the responses to inequity in non-human primates. — Soc. Justice Res. 25: 140-169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ProctorD.WilliamsonR.A.de WaalF.B.M.BrosnanS.F. (2013). Chimpanzees play the ultimatum game. — Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110: 2070-2075.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RaihaniN.J.BsharyR. (2015). Why humans might help strangers. — Front. Behav. Neurosci. 9: 39.

  • RaihaniN.J.McAuliffeK. (2012). Does inequity aversion motivate punishment? Cleaner fish as a model system. — Soc. Justice Res. 25: 213-231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RaihaniN.J.GrutterA.S.BsharyR. (2010). Punishers benefit from third-party punishment in fish. — Science 327: 171.

  • RaihaniN.J.PintoA.I.GrutterA.S.WismerS.BsharyR. (2011). Male cleaner wrasses adjust punishment of female partners according to the stakes. — Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. 279: 365-370.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RaihaniN.J.GrutterA.S.BsharyR. (2012a). Female cleaner fish cooperate more with unfamiliar males. — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. 279: 2479-2486.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RaihaniN.J.McAuliffeK.BrosnanS.F.BsharyR. (2012b). Are cleaner fish, Labroides dimidiatus, inequity averse?Anim. Behav. 84: 665-674.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RaihaniN.J.ThorntonA.N.BsharyR. (2012c). Punishment and cooperation in nature. — Trends. Ecol. Evol. 27: 288-295.

  • RangeF.HornL.ViranyiZ.HuberL. (2009). The absence of reward induces inequity aversion in dogs. — Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106: 340-345.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RangeF.LeitnerK.VirányiZ. (2012). The influence of the relationship and motivation on inequity aversion in dogs. — Soc. Justice Res. 25: 170-194.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ReynoldsG.S. (1961). Behavioral contrast. — J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 4: 441-466.

  • RobertsG. (2005). Cooperation through interdependence. — Anim. Behav. 70: 901-908.

  • RomaP.G.SilberbergA.RuggieroA.M.SuomiS.J. (2006). Capuchin monkeys, inequity aversion, and the frustration effect. — J. Comp. Psychol. 120: 67-73.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SchinoG.AureliF. (2009). Reciprocal altruism in primates: partner choice, cognition and emotions. — Adv. Stud. Behav. 39: 45-69.

  • SchinoG.AureliF. (2010). Primate reciprocity and its cognitive requirements. — Evol. Anthropol. 19: 130-135.

  • SilberbergA.CrescimbeneL.AddessiE.AndersonJ.R.VisalberghiE. (2009). Does inequity aversion depend on a frustration effect? A test with capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). — Anim. Cogn. 12: 505-509.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SilkJ.B.BrosnanS.F.VonkJ.HenrichJ.PovinelliD.J.RichardsonA.S.LambethS.P.MascaroJ.SchapiroS.J. (2005). Chimpanzees are indifferent to the welfare of unrelated group members. — Nature 437: 1357-1359.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SilkJ.B.HouseB.R. (2011). Evolutionary foundations of human prosocial sentiments. — Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108: 10910-10917.

  • StevensJ.R.HauserM.D. (2004). Why be nice? Psychological constraints on the evolution of cooperation. — Trends Cogn. Sci. 8: 60-65.

  • StrübinC.SteineggerM.BsharyR. (2011). On group living and collaborative hunting in the yellow saddle goatfish (Parupeneus cyclostomus). — Ethology 117: 961-969.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TakimotoA.FujitaK. (2011). I acknowledge your help: capuchin monkeys’ sensitivity to others’ labor. — Anim. Cogn. 14: 715-725.

  • TinklepaughO.L. (1928). An experimental study of representative factors in monkeys. — J. Comp. Psychol. 8: 197-236.

  • van WolkentenM.BrosnanS.F.de WaalF.B.M. (2007). Inequity responses of monkeys modified by effort. — Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104: 18854-18859.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VonkJ.BrosnanS.F.SilkJ.B.HenrichJ.RichardsonA.S.LambethS.P.SchapiroS.J.PovinelliD.J. (2008). Chimpanzees do not take advantage of very low cost opportunities to deliver food to unrelated group members. — Anim. Behav. 75: 1757-1770.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Index Card
Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 104 100 21
Full Text Views 198 198 1
PDF Downloads 17 17 3
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0