Obstacles and catalysts to peaceful coexistence in chimpanzees and bonobos

in Behaviour
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As our closest living relatives, comparisons of the social lives and behavioural ecologies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) provide relevant insights into the evolutionary constraints of peaceful coexistence in Hominid societies. In this review, we compare and contrast findings from the two Pan species in order to examine some of the obstacles and catalysts for peaceful behaviour in our ape relatives. Through comparing the social structures, behavioural mechanisms and ecological drivers for peaceful behaviours in Pan, we develop hypotheses regarding the evolutionary constraints of peaceful co-existence in hominid societies.

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Figures
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    Comparison of Dyadic Association Indices (DAI) for (a) chimpanzees of M group in Kalinzu and (b) bonobos of E1 group in Wamba. A one-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference among dyads of different sex combinations for chimpanzees (one way ANOVA, df = 2, F=482.8, p<0.01), but not for bonobos (df = 2, F=0.02, n.s.). There were significant pairwise differences in the DAI between chimpanzee male–male and male–female dyads and between male–male and female–female dyads (Fisher’s LSD test, p<0.01). Figure reproduced from Hashimoto & Furuichi (2015), with permission from the authors.

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    Photograph of party of male chimpanzees travelling cohesively at Kalinzu (a) contrasted with party of female bonobos travelling cohesively at Wamba (b). Photographs by Takeshi Furuichi. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/1568539x.

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    Photograph of genito-genital contact behaviour in female bonobos. Image taken at Lola ya Bonobo Sanctuary by Zanna Clay. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/1568539x.

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    Comparison of ecological and sociality variables at bonobo site Wamba (DR Congo) compared to the chimpanzee site Goualougo (Republic of Congo). (a) Seasonal fluctuation in availability of ripe fruit resources at Wamba compared to Goualougo. Values for Wamba show the number of clusters of ripe fallen fruit per km of transect. Values for Goualougo show proportion of food trees with ripe fruit on the ground. (b) Monthly mean daily party sizes for the E1 group of bonobos at Wamba and chimpanzees at Goualougo. Party size included adults, adolescents, and juveniles, but excluded infants. Figure reproduced from Furuichi et al. (2015), with permission from the authors.

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    Characteristic features contributing to peaceful co-existence in bonobo society. Figure adapted from Furuichi (2011). This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/1568539x.

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