Individual natal dispersal behaviour is often difficult to predict as it can be influenced by multiple extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Individual differences in personality have been shown to be an important correlate of dispersal behaviour. However, the relationships between personality traits and dispersal are often inconsistent within and across studies and the causes of these discrepancies are often unknown. Here we sought to determine how individual differences in activity and aggression, as measured in an open-field trial, were related to natal dispersal distance in a wild population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). For 14 cohorts, while individual aggression consistently had no association with dispersal distance, the association between activity and dispersal fluctuated through time, mediated by population density. The environmental-dependence of the relationship between personality and dispersal in this population is indicative of the importance of considering external conditions when predicting dispersal behaviour.
lme4: linear mixed-effects models using eigen and S4. — R package version 1.1-6. R Project for Statistical Computing, Vienna, available online athttp://cran.r-project.org/package=lme4.
Population changes of the vertebrate community during a snowshoe hare cycle in Canada’s boreal forest. —
Behavioural trait assessment as a release criterion: boldness predicts early death in a reintroduction programme of captive-bred Swift fox (Vulpes velox). —
The link between behavioural type and natal dispersal propensity reveals a dispersal syndrome in a large herbivore. —
Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci.281:
KelleyA. (2014). Development, stability, and consequence of personality in the juvenile red squirrel (Master’s thesis). — Available online at https://era.library.ualberta.ca/files/t435gg614/Kelley_Amanda_D_201404_MSc.pdf.
Changes in wild red squirrel personality across ontogeny: activity and aggression regress towards the mean. —
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Coping styles in animals: current status in behavior and stress-physiology. —
Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev.23:
lmerTest: tests in linear mixed effects models. — R package version 2.0-30. R Project for Statistical Computing, Vienna, available online athttp://cran.r-project.org/package=lmerTest.
Linking intraspecific variation in territory size, cone supply, and survival of North American red squirrels. —
Post-weaning parental care increases fitness but is not heritable in North American red squirrels. —
J. Evol. Biol.28:
Low heritabilities, but genetic and maternal correlations between red squirrel behaviours. —
Natal dispersal in a social landscape: considering individual behavioral phenotypes and social environment in dispersal ecology. —