This paper uses affect theory as a tool to interpret the violent images of two stories found in Judges 3–5, those of Ehud and Eglon and that of Jael and Sisera. Affect theory affords biblical exegetes a means to examine the role of the reader’s embodiment as a tool for textual interpretation. I use the work of affect theorists to discuss the way violent images work on readers and create the emotional, physical, and sensory context in which later violent images will be received and interpreted. The sensation created by exposure to violence is embodied in readers before the readers judge the images according to their moral, ideological, and ethical value. In fact, the embodied affect of exposure to violence is the context in which that judgment occurs. In Judges, the violated body anchors an experience of vulnerability and fear in the reader. The visceral affect of anxiety and the intensity of bodily violence position the reader to feel the need for security and relief in the figure of the king. This paper focuses on Ehud and Jael as two of the significant early exposures to the violated body in the book of Judges and explores their different contributions to the theme of physical violence. The physical experiences of modern readers may give us valuable insight into how the physical experiences of readers contribute to the persuasiveness of textual arguments. Affect theory brings into focus the body in the text and the body of the reader as part of meaning-making.
George Lakoff and Mark JohnsonPhilosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and its Challenge to Western Thought (New York: Basic Books1999) p. 3. Lakoff and Johnson do not describe themselves as affect theorists but their observations about the embodied nature of reason and thought are highly relevant to affect theory.
RileyImpersonal Passion p. 3. Riley’s reference is to philosopher J. L. Austin How to do Things with Words: The William James Lectures Delivered at Harvard University in 1955 (ed. J. O. Urmson; Oxford: Clarendon Press 1962).
Phyllis Trible Texts of Terror: Literary-Feminist Readings of Biblical Narratives (Minneapolis: Fortress Press1984); Gale Yee (ed.) Judges and Method: New Approaches in Biblical Studies (Minneapolis: Fortress Press 2nd edn 2007); Jo Ann Hackett “Violence and Women’s Lives in the Book of Judges” Interp 58(2004) pp. 356–64; Alice Bach “Rereading the Body Politic: Women and Violence in Judges 21” BibInt 6 (1998) pp. 1–19; Mieke Bal Murder and Difference: Genre Gender and Scholarship on Sisera’s Death (Bloomington: Indiana University Press 1988); Richard G. Bowman and Richard W. Swanson “Samson and the Son of God or Dead Heroes and Dead Goats: Ethical Readings of Narrative Violence in Judges and Matthew” in Danna Nolan Fewell and Gary A. Phillips (eds.) Bible and Ethics of Reading (Semeia 77; Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature 1997) pp. 59–73; Daniel J. Terry “With the Jawbone of a Donkey: Shame Violence and Punishment in the Samson Narrative” in Dereck Daschke and Andrew D. Kille (eds.) A Cry Instead of Justice: The Bible and Cultures of Violence in Psychological Perspective (New York: T & T Clark 2010) pp. 42–54; Mikael Sjöberg Wrestling with Textual Violence: The Jephthah Narrative in Antiquity and Modernity (Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press 2006); Andrew Hock-Soon Ng “Revisiting Judges 19: A Gothic Perspective” JSOT 32 (2007) pp. 199–215.
Handy“Uneasy Laughter” pp. 233–46; Marc Zvi Brettler The Book of Judges (New York Routledge 2002) pp. 29–33; Eric Christianson “A Fistful of Shekels: Scrutinizing Ehud’s Entertaining Violence (Judges 3:12–30)” BibInt 11 (2003) pp. 53–78; Deist “Murder in the Toilet” pp. 263–72.