Autouomy in Finlaud: The Territorial Autonomy of the Åland Islauds aud the Cultural Autonomy of the Indigeuous Saami People

in Baltic Yearbook of International Law Online
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Autouomy in Finlaud: The Territorial Autonomy of the Åland Islauds aud the Cultural Autonomy of the Indigeuous Saami People

in Baltic Yearbook of International Law Online

References

1 The Autonomy Act no. 1144/1991 was adopted on 16 August 1991. It entered into force at the beginning of 1993. Text in the Finnish and Swedish languages can be found in the Finnish Law Gazette (Suomen slilidoskokoelma, Finlands fdrfattningssamling). For the English language text, see L. Hannikainen & F. Horn (eds.), Autonomy and Demilitarisation in Inter- national Law: The .41and Islands in a Changing Europe (Kluwer Law International, 1997), Annex 3. The other Annexes of the book contain other relevant documents on Land.

2 Regarding .�land's decision to join Finland's membership and .�land's relationship to the EU, see Niklas Fagerlund's article in L. Hannikainen & F. Horn (eds.), Autonomy and Demilitarisation in International Law: The,41and Islands in a Changing Europe (Kluwer Law International, 1997).

3 The person must establish residency in Aland prior to the age of 12.

4 sere Advisory Committee's Opinion on Finland, 22 September 2000, para. 46. 5 See also L. Hannikainen, Cultural, Linguistic and Educational Rights in the .41and Islands - An Analysis in International Law (Helsinki: Publications of the Advisory Board for Interna- tional Human Rights Affairs, No 5, 1993), pp. 41-49.

6 Act no. 974/1995. For its text and other acts and provisions concerning the Saami in Finland in English see, Annex I in U. Aikio-Puoskari & M. Pentikainen, The Language Rights of the Indigenous Saami In Finland -under Domestic and International Law (Rovaniemi: Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law, University of Lapland, 2001 ).

7 See M. Scheinin, "The Right to Enjoy a Distinct Culture: Indigenous and Competing Uses of Land", in T. S. Orlin, A. Rosas & M. Scheinin (cds.), The Jurisprudence of Human Rights Law: A Comparative Interpretive Approach (Turku/Abo: Institute for Human Rights, Abo Akademi University), pp. 159-222. 8 See note 4 above, para. 50. 9 Act no. 1201/1991 as amended by Act no. 1728/1995.

10 Committee of Ministers Recommendation RecChL(2001)3 on the application of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages by Finland, 19 September 2001. For a more detailed discussion, see Report of the Committee of Experts on the Application of the Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in Finland, Council of Europe Doc. CRML (2001)3, paras. 133-197 and the concluding chapter. " See note 6 above, pp. 181-182.

'2 K. Korpijaakko-Labba, Saamelaisten oikeusasemasta Suomessa, Diedut No 1/1999 (Nordisk Samisk Institutt, 2000). '3 See P. Vihervuori, Maahan, veteen ja luonnonvaroihin sekd perinteisiin elinkeinoihin kodistuvat oikeudet saamelaisten kotiseutualueella, Helsinki: Oikeusministerion yleisen osaston julkaisuja 3/1999. A summarising memorandum in English by researcher Tanja Tirro- nen can be found on the Internet at http://www.urova.fi/home/pwi.

14 Saamelaistoimikunnan mietinto - Ehdotus maahan, veteen, luonnonvaroihin ja perinteisiin luontaiselinkeinoihin liittyvien oikeuksien jarjestamisesta saamelaisten kotiseutualueella valtion mailla, Helsinki: oikeusministerio, 3 joulukuuta 2001.

15 See K. Myntti, "The Nordic Sami Parliaments", in P. Aikio & M. Scheinin (eds.), Opera- tionalizing the Right of Indigenous Peoples to Self-Determination (Turku/Abo: Institute for Human Rights, Abo Akademi University, 2000), pp. 203-221. 16 J. B. Henriksen, Saami Parliamentary Cooperation, Copenhagen: IWGIA Document No. 93, 1999, pp. 29-48. Henriksen also discusses Saami parliamentary cooperation at length.

" See note 15 above, p. 221. 18 Even though the Alanders were quite often dissatisfied with the interpretation of the Fin- nish State on the limits of the autonomy of Aland, they did not submit any formal complaints to the Council of the League of Nations. 19 For a comprehensive approach, see the 1999 Lund Recommendations on the Affective Participation of National Minorities in Public Life, adopted by a group of experts in a seminar

arranged by the Foundation on Inter-Ethnic Relations. The High Commissioner on National Minorities of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe was involved in the adoption of the Lund Recommendations. Part III of the Lund Recommendations deals with self-governance and Part IV with guarantees. Unfortunately, the Lund Recommendations say nothing about international monitoring or supervision. See K. Myntti, A Commentary to the Lund Recommendations on the Effective Participation of National Minorities in Public Life (Turku/Abo: Institute for Human Rights, Abo Akademi University, 2001).

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 11 11 3
Full Text Views 12 12 9
PDF Downloads 0 0 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0