International cooperation on wmd nonproliferation in Central Asia must continue. In addition to unsolved problems related from the Soviet era, the region faces new challenges and threats, such as illicit trafficking in wmd materials, technologies, equipment, and delivery systems, as well as the threat of wmd terrorism. In addition, some Central Asian countries plan to develop their national nuclear industries. Future cooperation on wmd nonproliferation in Central Asia should focus on improving nuclear security and safety systems at nuclear facilities, continued engagement on the Semipalatinsk test site, countering radiological security and safety threats, enhancing export controls and border security, encouraging regional cooperation, strengthening cybersecurity, and promoting nuclear science cooperation and wmd nonproliferation education.
D. Aben“Tsentral’naya Aziya i ugrozy rasprostraneniya oruzhiya massovogo unichtozheniya,” in Bezopasnost’ i sotrudnichestvo v Tsentral’noi Azii v XXI veke: tseli prioritety i vyzovy (Astana: Institute for Modern Research at the L.N. Gumilev Eurasian National University2010) 81–88.