Critical Evaluation of Adler’s Challenge to the cdc’s Male Circumcision Recommendations

in The International Journal of Children's Rights
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?


We evaluate Peter Adler’s challenge to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (cdc) draft recommendations on male circumcision (this issue, see pp. 237–262). The cdc advocates elective male circumcision (mc) to improve public health in the usa based on strong scientific evidence. In marked contrast to the cdc, Adler’s criticisms depend on speculative claims and obfuscation of the scientific data. Adler’s central argument that circumcision in infancy should be delayed to allow a boy to make up his own mind as an adult fails to appreciate that circumcision later in life is a more complex operation, entails higher risk, is more likely to involve general anaesthesia and presents financial, psychological and organisational barriers. These limitations are avoided by circumcision early in infancy, when it is convenient, safe, quick, low risk, usually involves local anaesthesia and provides benefits immediately. Benefits of male circumcision include: protection against: urinary tract infections that are ten times higher in uncircumcised infants; inflammatory skin conditions; other foreskin problems; sexually transmitted infections and genital cancers in the male and his female sexual partners. Circumcision during infancy is also associated with faster healing and improved cosmetic outcomes. Circumcision does not impair sexual function or pleasure. Some authorities regard the failure to offer circumcision as unethical, just as it would be unethical to fail to encourage paediatric vaccination. Since the benefits vastly outweigh the risks, each intervention is in the best interests of the child. In conclusion, Adler’s criticisms of the cdc’s evidence-based male circumcision policy are flawed scientifically, ethically and legally, and should be dismissed as endangering public health and individual well-being.

Critical Evaluation of Adler’s Challenge to the cdc’s Male Circumcision Recommendations

in The International Journal of Children's Rights



Adam & Eve. “ asks women: Do you prefer a circumcised or uncircumcised penis?”: Adam & Eve Hillsborough North Carolina usa. (2014).

AdlerP. W.Is it lawful to use Medicaid to pay for circumcision?J. Law. Med. 19 (2011) 335353.

AdlerP. W.The draft cdc circumcision recommendations: Medical, ethical, legal, and procedural concernsInt. Children’s Rights 24 (2016) 239–264.

American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Bioethics. “Informed consent, parental permission, and assent in pediatric practice”Pediatrics 95 (1995) 314317.

American Academy of PediatricsCircumcision policy statement. Task Force on Circumcision”Pediatrics 130 (2012a) e756e785.

American Psychiatric Association “Diagnostic & Statistical Manual 5th Revision (dsm-5).” (2013).

American Urological Association “Circumcision”: (2012b).

AnonymousCircumcision and autism”Arch. Dis. Child. 100 (2015) 369.

Attorneys for the Rights of the Child “Peter W. Adler”: (2015).

AuvertB.TaljaardD.LagardeE.Sobngwi-TambekouJ.SittaR. and PurenA.Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of hiv infection risk: The anrs 1265 TrialploS Med. 2(e298) (2005) 11121122.

BadgerJ.Circumcision. What you think”Australian Forum 2(11) (1989a) 1029.

BadgerJ.The great circumcision report part 2”Australian Forum 2(12) (1989b) 413.

BaileyR. C.MosesS.ParkerC. B.AgotK.MacleanI.KriegerJ. N.WilliamsC. F.CampbellR. T. and Ndinya-AcholaJ. O.Male circumcision for hiv prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: a randomised controlled trialLancet 369 (2007) 643656.

BaileyR. C.MugaR.PoulussenR. and AbichtH. 'The acceptability of male circumcision to reduce hiv infections in Nyanza Province, Kenya”aids Care 14 (2002) 2740.

BalciM.TuncelA.BaranI.GuzelO.KetenT.AksuN. and AtanA.High-risk oncogenic human papilloma virus infection of the foreskin and microbiology of smegma in prepubertal boys”Urology 86 (2015) 368372.

BatesM. J.ZieglerJ. B.KennedyS. E.MindelA.WodakA. D.ZolothL. S.TobianA. A. R. and MorrisB. J.Recommendation by a law body to ban infant male circumcision has serious worldwide implications for pediatric practice and human rights”bmc Pediatr. 13(Article ) (2013) 19.

BauerA. Z. and KriebelD.Prenatal and perinatal analgesic exposure and autism: an ecological link”Environ. Health 12 (2013) 41.

BenatarD. “Evaluations of circumcision should be circumscribed by the evidence” J. Med. Ethics 39(7) (2013) 431–432.

BenatarD. and BenatarM.How not to argue about circumcision”Am. J. Bioethics 3 (2003a) W1W9.

BenatarM. and BenatarD.Between prophylaxis and child abuse: The ethics of neonatal male circumcision”Am. J. Bioeth. 3 (2003b) 3548.

BesterJ. C.Ritual male infant circumcision: the consequences and the principles say yes”Am. J. Bioeth 15(2) (2015) 5658.

BhatG. H.BhatM. A.KourK. and ShahB. A.Density and structural variations of Meissner’s corpuscles at different sites in human glaborous skin”J. Anat. Soc. India 57 (2008) 3033.

BossioJ. A.PukallC. F. and SteeleS. S.Examining penile sensitivity in neonatally circumcised and intact men using quantitative sensory testingJ. Urol . 195 (2016) 1848–1853.

BoyleG. J. and BensleyG. A.Adverse sexual and psychological effects of male infant circumcisionPsychol. Rep. 88(Part 2) (2001) 11051106.

BrusaM. and BarilanY. M.Cultural circumcision in eu public hospitals - an ethical discussion”Bioethics 23 (2009) 470482.

California Assembly Bill 768Male circumcision”: (2011).

CalnanM.DouglasJ. W. B. and GoldsteinH.Tonsillectomy and circumcision: comparison of two cohorts”Int. J. Epidemiol. 7 (1978) 79.

CastellsagueX.BoschF. X.MunozN.MeijerC. J.ShahK. SanjoseS.Eluf-NetoJ.NgelangelC. A.ChichareonS.SmithJ. S.HerreroR.MorenoV.FranceschiS. and International Agency for Research on Cancer Multicenter Cervical Cancer Study Group “Male circumcision, penile human papillomavirus infection, and cervical cancer in female partnersN. Engl. J. Med. 346 (2002) 11051112.

CathcartP.NuttallM.van der MeulenJ.EmbertonM. and KennyS. E.Trends in paediatric circumcision and its complications in England between 1997 and 2003Br. J. Surg. 93 (2006) 885890.

Catholic Enquiry CentreFrequently asked questions regarding circumcision”: (2015).

Centers for Disease Control and PreventionNeonatal herpes simplex virus infection following Jewish ritual circumcisions that included direct orogenital suction – New York City, 2000–2011”mmwr Morb. Mortal Wkly. Rep. 61 (2012) 404409.

Centers for Disease Control and PreventionRecommendations for Providers Counseling Male Patients and Parents Regarding Male Circumcision and the Prevention of hiv Infection, stis, and Other Health Outcomes” Docket No. cdc-2014-0012:!documentDetail;D=cdc-2014-0012-0002 (2014).

ChemtobD.Op de CoulE.Van SighemA.MorZ.CazeinF. and SemailleC.Impact of male circumcision among heterosexual hiv cases: comparison between three low prevalence countriesIsr. J. Health Policy Res. 4 (2015) article 36: 3138.

CherpesT. L.MeyneL. A.KrohnM. A. and HillerS. L.Risk factors for infection with herpes simplex virus type 2: Role of smoking, douching, uncircumcised males, and vaginal flora”Sex. Transm. Dis. 30 (2003) 405410.

ChinenM. A.Game Theory and Customary International Law: A Response to Professors Goldsmith and PosnerMich. J. Int. Law 23 (2001) 143 178.

ChristakisD. A.HarveyE.ZerrD. M.FeudtnerC.WrightJ. A. and ConnellF. A.A trade-off analysis of routine newborn circumcision”Pediatrics 105 (2000) 246249.

Circumcisioncenter.comCircumcision revision for a gentleman in his late thirties who had done foreskin restoration by stretching”: (2015).

ClarkP. A.EisenmanJ. and SzaporS.Mandatory neonatal male circumcision in Sub-Saharan Africa: medical and ethical analysis”Med. Sci. Monit. 13 (2007) RA205213.

Cornell University Law School Legal Information Institute 18 U.S. Code 116 – Female genital mutilation: https:// (2013).

Cortés-GonzálezJ. R.Arratia-MaqueoJ. A. and Gómez-GuerraL. S.[Does circumcision has an effect on female’s perception of sexual satisfaction?] (article in Spanish)Rev. Invest. Clin. 60 (2008) 227230.

Cortés-GonzálezJ. R.Arratia-MaqueoJ. A.Martínez-MontelongoR. and Gómez-GuerraL. S.[Does circumcision affect male’s perception of sexual satisfaction?]” (article in Spanish) Arch. Esp. Urol. 62 (2009) 733736.

CoxG.KriegerJ. N. and MorrisB. J.Histological correlates of penile sexual sensation: Does circumcision make a difference? (systematic review)”Sex. Med. 3 (2015) 7685.

DalingJ. R.MadeleineM. M.JohnsonL. G.SchwartzS. M.SheraK. A.WurscherM. A.CarterJ. J.PorterP. L.GallowayD. A.McDougallJ. K. and KriegerJ. N.“Penile cancer: importance of circumcision, human papillomavirus and smoking in in situ and invasive disease”Int. J. 116 (2005) 606616.

dw news-service “Circumcision remains legal in Germany”: (2012). Retrieved from:

EarpB. D.Do the benefits of male circumcision outweigh the risks? A critique of the proposed cdc guidelines”Front. Pediatr. 3 (2015) 18.

El BcheraouiC.ZhangX.CooperC. S.RoseC. E.KilmarxP. H. and ChenR. T.Rates of adverse events associated with male circumcision in us medical settings, 2001 to 2010”jama Pediatr. 168 (2014) 625634.

ElderJ. S. (2007) Urinary tract infections. Textbook of Pediatrics 18th edn. KligemanR. M.BehrmanR. E.JensonH. B. and StantonB. F. Philadelphia, Saunders Elsevier. 2007 : 22232228.

FergussonD. M.BodenJ. M. and HorwoodL. J.Neonatal circumcision: Effects on breastfeeding and outcomes associated with breastfeeding”J. Paediatr. Child Health 44 (2008) 4449.

FidlerD. P. (1996) “Challenging the Classical Concept of Custom: Perspectives on the Future of Customary International Law”German Lawbook of International Law 39 (1996) 198.

FindLawAmstrong v. State. Supreme Court of Montana. No. 98–066. Decided 26 October 1999: (1999). GierR. P. E. de Jong T. P. V. M. FaschingG.FetterW.GahrM.GraugaardC.GreisenG.GunnarsdottirA.HartmannW.HavranekP.HitchcockR.HuddartS.JansonS.JaszczakP.KupferschmidC.Lahdes-VasamaT.LindahlH.MacDonaldN.MarkestadT.MärtsonM.NordhovS. M.PälveH.PetersonsA.QuinnF.QvistN.RosmundssonT.SaxenH.SöderM.StehrM.von LoewenichV. C. H.WallanderJ. and WijnenR. “Cultural bias in the aap’s 2012 technical report and policy statement on male circumcision”Pediatrics 131 (2013) 796800.

FrischM. and SimonsenJ.Ritual circumcision and risk of autism spectrum disorder in 0- to 9-year old boys: national cohort study in Denmark”J. R. Soc. Med. 108 (2015) 266279.

GoldsmithJ. L. and PosnerE. A.A Theory of Customary International Law”University of Chicago Law Review 66 (1999) 1113.

GoldsmithJ. L. and PosnerE. A.Understanding the Resemblance Between Modem and Traditional Customary International Law”Va. J. Int. Law 40 (2000) 639640.

GrayR.KigoziG.KongX.SsempiijaV.MakumbiF.WattyaS.SerwaddaD.NalugodaF.SewenkamboN. K. and WawerM. J.The effectiveness of male circumcision for hiv prevention and effects on risk behaviors in a post-trial follow up study in Rakai, Uganda”aids 26 (2012) 609615.

GrayR. H.KigoziG.SerwaddaD.MakumbiF.WatyaS.NalugodaF.KiwanukaN.MoultonL. H.ChaudharyM. A.ChenM. Z.SewankamboN. K.Wabwire-MangenF.BaconM. C.WilliamsC. F.OpendiP.ReynoldsS. J.LaeyendeckerO.QuinnT. C. and WawerM. J.Male circumcision for hiv prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised trial”Lancet 369 (2007) 657666.

GutweinL. G.AlvarezJ. F.GutweinJ. L.KaysD. W. and IslamS.Allocation of healthcare dollars: analysis of nonneonatal circumcisions in Florida”Am. Surg. 79 (2013) 865869.

GuzmanA. Y.Saving customary international lawMich. J. Int. Law 115 (2005–2006) 27.

Habous M. Tealab A. Williamson B Binsaleh S. El Dawy S. Mahmoud S. Abdelwahab O. Nassar M. Mulhall J. P. Veale D. and Muir G. “Erect penile dimensions in a cohort of 778 Middle Eastern men: establishment of a nomogram.” J. Sex. Med. 12 (2015) 1402–1406.

HammondT.A preliminary poll of men circumcised in infancy or childhood”bju Int. 83(suppl 1) (1999) 8592.

HobermanA.WaldE. R.HickeyR. W.BaskinM.CharronM.MajdM.KearneyD. H.ReynoldsE. A.RuleyJ. and JanoskyJ. E.Oral versus initial intravenous therapy for urinary tract infections in young febrile childrenPediatrics 104 (Pt 1) (1999) 7986.

HolliganA.Dutch Jews and Muslims fight for circumcision rightbbc News : (2011).

H.R.104th Cong 1946 (1995).

JacobsA. J.“The ethics of circumcision of male infants”Isr. Med. Assoc. J. 15 (2013) 6065.

JacobsA. J. and AroraK. S.Ritual male infant circumcision and human rights”Am. J. Bioeth. 15(2) (2015) 3039.

JacobsM.GradyR. and BolnickD. A.“Current circumcision trends and guidelinesSurgical Guide to Circumcision BolnickD. A.KoyleM. A. and YoshaA. (eds) LondonSpringer-Verlag. 2012 : 38.

Johns Hopkins University. Hippocratic Oath Modern version: (2015).

JoudiM.FathiM. and HiradfarM.Incidence of asymptomatic meatal stenosis in children following neonatal circumcisionJ. Pediatr. Urol. 7 (2011) 526528.

KadensE. and YoungE. A.How customary is customary international law?Wm & Mary Law Rev. 54 (2012–2013) 885.

KafkaM. P.The dsm diagnostic criteria for paraphilia not otherwise specified”Arch. Sex. Behav. 39(2) (2010) 373376.

KelishadiR.To the readersInt. J. Prev. Med. 1 (2010) i.

KellyP.. “The twilight of customary international law, 40”Va. J. Int. Law 40 (2000) 449450.

KigoziG.LukabweI.KagaayiJ.WawerM. J.NantumeB.KigoziG.NalugodaF.KiwanukaN.Wabwire-MangenF.SerwaddaD.RidzonR.BuwemboD.NabukenyaD.WatyaS.LutaloT.NkaleJ. and GrayR. H.Sexual satisfaction of women partners of circumcised men in a randomized trial of male circumcision in Rakai, Uganda”bju Int. 104 (2009) 16981701.

KigoziG.WatyaS.PolisC. B.BuwemboD.KiggunduV.WawerM. J.SerwaddaD.NalugodaF.KiwanukaN.BaconM. C.SsempijjaV.MakumbiF. and GrayR .H.The effect of male circumcision on sexual satisfaction and function, results from a randomized trial of male circumcision for human immunodeficiency virus prevention, Rakai, Uganda”bju Int. 101 (2008) 6570.

KoyleM. A.BarqawiA.WildJ.PassamaneckM. and FurnessP. D.3rd.Pediatric urinary tract infections: the role of fluoroquinolones”Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 22 (2003) 11331137.

KriegerJ. N.MehtaS. D.BaileyR. C.AgotK.Ndinya-AcholaJ. O.ParkerC. and MosesS.Adult male circumcision: Effects on sexual function and sexual satisfaction in Kisumu, Kenya”J. Sex Med. 5 (2008) 26102622.

LarkeN. L.ThomasS. L.Dos Santos SilvaI. and WeissH. A.Male circumcision and penile cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis”Cancer Causes Control 22 (2011) 10971110.

LaumannE. O.MasiC. M. and ZuckermanE. W.Circumcision in the United States. Prevalence, prophyactic effects, and sexual practice”J. Am. Med. Assoc. 277 (1997) 10521057.

LeiJ. H.LiuL. R.WeiQ.YanS. B.YangL.SongT. R.YuanH. C.LvX. and HanP.Circumcision status and risk of hiv acquisition during heterosexual intercourse for both males and females: A meta-analysis”PLoS One 10 (2015) .

LeibowitzA. A.DesmondK. and BelinT.Determinants and policy implications of male circumcision in the United States”Am. J. Public Health 99 (2009) 138145.

LiuC. M.HungateB. A.TobianA. A.RavelJ.ProdgerJ. L.SerwaddaD.KigoziG.GaliwangoR. M.NalugodaF.KeimP.WawerM. J.PriceL. B. and GrayR. H.Penile microbiota and female partner bacterial vaginosis in Rakai, Ugandambio 6 (2015) .

LiuC. M.HungateB. A.TobianA. A. R.SerwaddaD.RavelJ.LesterR.KigoziG.AzizM.GaliwangoR. M.NalugodaF.Contente-CuomoT. L.WawerM. J.KeimP.GrayR. H. and PriceL. B.Male circumcision significantly reduces prevalence and load of genital anaerobic bacteria”Mbio 4 (2013) 19.

LopezL. M.OtternessC.ChenM.SteinerM. and GalloM. F.Behavioral interventions for improving condom use for dual protection”Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 10 (2013) cd010662.

MazorJ.The child’s interests and the case for the permissibility of male infant circumcision”J. Med. Ethics 39 (2013) 421428.

McIntoshN.Pain in the newborn, a possible new starting point”Eur. J. Pediatr. 156 (1997) 173177.

MerkelR. and PutzkeH.After Cologne: male circumcision and the law. Parental right, religious liberty or criminal assault?J. Med. Ethics 39 (2013) 444449.

MohlP. C.AdamsR.GrierD. M. and SheleyK. A.Prepuce restoration seekers: Psychiatric aspects”Arch. Sexual Behav. 10 (1981) 383393.

MoretonS. (2014) “Debunking anticircumcision pseudoscience”. An annotated version of the National Coalition for Men’s letter to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation:

MorrisB. J.Why circumcision is a biomedical imperative for the 21st century”BioEssays 29 (2007) 11471158.

MorrisB. J.Commentary on article by Earp entitled: Do the benefits of male circumcision outweigh the risks? A critique of the proposed cdc guidelines”Front. Pediatr. 3 (2015) 88.

MorrisB. J.BaileyR. C.KlausnerJ. D.LeibowitzA.WamaiR. G.WaskettJ. H.BanerjeeJ.HalperinD. T.ZolothL.WeissH. A. and HankinsC. A.Review: a critical evaluation of arguments opposing male circumcision for hiv prevention in developed countries”aids Care 24 (2012a) 15651575.

MorrisB.J.BailisS.A.WaskettJ.H.WiswellT. E. and HalperinD. T.Medicaid coverage of newborn circumcision: a health parity right of the poor”Am. J. Public Health 99 (2009) 969971.

MorrisB. J.BailisS. A. and WiswellT. E.Circumcision rates in the United States: Rising or falling? What effect might the new affirmative pediatric policy statement have?Mayo Clin. Proc. 89 (2014) 677686.

MorrisB. J. and CastellsagueX. (2011) “The role of circumcision in preventing stis”, Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Gross, G. E. and Tyring, S. K. (eds), Berlin and HeidelbergSpringer-Verlag. 2011 : 715739.

MorrisB. J.GrayR. H.CastellsagueX.BoschF. X.HalperinD. T.WaskettJ. H. and HankinsC. A.The strong protection afforded by circumcision against cancer of the penis (Invited Review)Adv. Urol. (Article id 812368) (2011) 121.

MorrisB. J. and KriegerJ. N. “Does male circumcision affect sexual function sensitivity or satisfaction? – A systematic review” J. Sex. Med. 10 (2013) 26442657.

MorrisB. J. and KriegerJ. N.The literature supports policies promoting neonatal male circumcision in north america”J. Sex. Med. 12 (2015a) 1305.

MorrisB. J. and KriegerJ. N.Male circumcision does not reduce sexual function, sensitivity or satisfaction”Adv. Sex. Med. 5 (2015b) 5360.

MorrisB. J. and TobianA. A.Legal threat to infant male circumcision”jama Pediatr. 167 (2013) 890891.

MorrisB. J.TobianA. A. R.HankinsC. A.KlausnerJ. D.BanerjeeJ.BailisS. A.MosesS. and WiswellT. E.Veracity and rhetoric in pediatric medicine: A critique of Svoboda and Van Howe’s response to the aap policy on infant male circumcision”J. Med. Ethics 40 (2013) 463470.

MorrisB. J.WaskettJ. H.BanerjeeJ.WamaiR. G.TobianA. A. R.GrayR. H.BailisS. A.BaileyR. C.KlausnerJ. D.WillcourtR. J.HalperinD. T.WiswellT. E. and MindelA.A ‘snip’ in time: what is the best age to circumcise?bmc Pediatr . 12 (article 20) (2012b) 115.

MorrisB. J.WaskettJ. H. and GrayR. H.Does sexual function survey in Denmark offer any support for male circumcision having an adverse effect?Int. J. Epidemiol. 41 (2012c) 310312.

MorrisB. J. and WiswellT. E.Circumcision and lifetime risk of urinary tract infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis”J. Urol. 189(6) (2013) 21182124.

MorrisB. J. and WiswellT. E.Circumcision pain’ unlikely to cause autismJ. R. Soc. Med. 108(8) (2015) 297.

MorrisB. J.WodakA. D.MindelA.SchrieberL.DugganK. A.DillyA.WillcourtR. J. and CooperD. A.The 2010 Royal Australasian College of Physicians policy statement ‘Circumcision of infant males’ is not evidence based”Intern. Med. J. 42 (2012d) 822828.

MorrisB. J.WodakA. D.MindelA.SchrieberL.DugganK. A.DillyA.WillcourtR. J.CooperD. A.LumbersE. R.RussellC. T. and LeederS. R.“Infant male circumcision: An evidence-based policy statement”, Open J . Prevent. Med. 2 (2012e) 7982.

MosesS.BaileyR. C. and RonaldA. R.Male circumcision: assessment of health benefits and risks”Sex. Transm. Inf. 74 (1998) 368373.

NelsonD. E.DongQ.Van der PolB.TohE.FanB.KatzB. P.MiD.RongR.WeinstockG. M.SodergrenE. and FortenberryJ. D.Bacterial communities of the coronal sulcus and distal urethra of adolescent males”ploS One 7 (2012) .

Notyourstocut.comThe biggest risk factor and the quickest path to change”: (2014).

O’FarrellN.QuigleyM. and FoxP.Association between the intact foreskin and inferior standards of male genital hygiene behaviour: a cross-sectional study”Int. J. std. aids 16 (2005) 556559.

OuelletteA.Shaping Parental Authority over Children’s Bodies”Indiana Law J. 85 (2010) 9551002.

PallettA. and HandK.Complicated urinary tract infections: practical solutions for the treatment of multiresistant Gram-negative bacteriaJ. Antimicrob. Chemother . 65 Suppl 3 (2010) iii2533.

RichtersJ.GerofiJ. and DonovanB.Are condoms the right size(s)? A method for self-measurement of the erect penis”Venereology 8 (1995) 7781.

RothJ. D.KeenanA. C.CarrollA. E.RinkR. C.CainM. P.WhittamB. M. and BennettW. E.Jr.Readmission characteristics of elective pediatric circumcisions using large-scale administrative data”J. Pediatr. Urol . 12 (2015) 27. e1–6.

Royal Australasian College of Physicians Paediatrics & Child Health DivisionCircumcision of infant males” (2010a):

Royal Dutch Medical Association (knmg)Non-therapeutic circumcision of male minors. Utrecht: Royal Dutch Medical Association (knmg)” (2010):

RushtonH. G.Urinary tract infections in children. Epidemiology, evaluation, and management”Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 44 (1997) 11331169.

RushtonH. G. and MajdM.Dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy for the evaluation of pyelonephritis and scarring: a review of experimental and clinical studies”J. Urol. 148 (Pt 2) (1992a) 17261732.

RushtonH. G. and MajdM.Pyelonephritis in male infants: how important is the foreskin?J. Urol. 148 (1992b) 733736.

RussellC. T. and ChaselingJ.Topical anaesthesia in neonatal circumcision: a study of 208 consecutive cases”Aust. Fam. Physician 25(suppl 1) (1996) 3034.

SchlosbergerN. M.TurnerR. A. and IrwinC. E.Jr.Early adolescent knowledge and attitudes about circumcision: methods and implications for research”J. Adolesc. Health 13 (1992) 293297.

SchoenE. J.Circumcision for preventing urinary tract infections in boys: North American view”Arch. Dis. Child 90 (2005) 772773.

SchoenE. J.Critique of Van Howe rs. Incidence of meatal stenosis following neonatal circumcision in a primary care setting. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2006;45:49–54Clin. Paediatr. (Phila) 46 (2007) 86.

SchultheissD.TrussM.C. StiefC.G. and Jonas U. “Uncircumcision: a historical review of preputial restoration”Plast. Reconst. Surg. 101 (1998) 19901998.

SiegfriedN.MullerM.DeeksJ. J. and VolminkJ.Male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual acquisition of hiv in men”Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. Issue 2 (2009) cd003362.

SimforooshN.TabibiA.KhaliliS. A.SoltaniM. H.AfjehiA.AalamiF. and BodoohiH.Neonatal circumcision reduces the incidence of asymptomatic urinary tract infection: A large prospective study with long-term follow up using Plastibell”J. Pediatr. Urol. 8 (2012) 320323.

Singh-GrewalD.MacdessiJ. and CraigJ.Circumcision for the prevention of urinary tract infections in boys: a systematic review of randomized trials and observational studies”Arch. Dis. Child. 90 (2005) 853858.

SmithD. K.TaylorA.KilmarxP. H.SullivanP.WarnerL.KambM.BockN.KohmescherB. and MastroT. D.Male circumcision in the United States for the prevention of hiv infection and other adverse health outcomes: Report from a cdc consultation”Public Health Reports 125(Suppl 1) (2010) 7282.

Sneppen I. and Thorup J. “Foreskin morbidity in uncircumcised males” Pediatrics 137 (2016) e20154340.

SorokanS. T.FinlayJ. C. and JeffriesA. L.Position Statement. Canadian Paediatric Society. Newborn male circumcision”Paediatr. Child Health 20 (2015) 311315.

ResS.104th Cong pmbl 984 (1995a).

ResS.104th Cong 984 (1995b).

StaffordN.German ethics council backs religious circumcision if specific conditions metbmj 345 (2012) e5789.

StenramA.MalmforsG. and OkmianL.Circumcision for phimosis – indications and resultsActa. Paediat. Scand. 75 (1986) 321323.

SvobodaJ. S.A treatise from the trenches: Why are circumcision lawsuits so hard to win?Circumcision and Human Rights:  percent2F10.1007percent2F978-1-4020-9167-4&token2=exp=1453860990~acl=percent2Fstaticpercent2Fpdfpercent2F912percent2Fbokpercent3A978-1-4020-9167-4.pdfpercent3ForiginUrlpercent3Dhttppercent3Apercent2Fpercent2Flink.springer.compercent2Fbookpercent2F10.1007percent2F978-1-4020-9167-4*~hmac=0826f2d67cc6fa12853c95dcfb0746a811b9a518f18dea501235686b2a7e2ad8 in DennistonG.HodgesF.MilosM.FayreM. (eds) Berlin Germany Springer. (2009) 201217.

SvobodaJ. S.Circumcision of male infants as a human rights violation”J. Med. Ethics 39 (2013) 469474.

SvobodaJ. S. and Van HoweR. S.Out of step: fatal flaws in the latest aap policy report on neonatal circumcision”J. Med. Ethics 39 (2013) 434441.

TaddioA.ChambersC. T.HalperinS. A.IppM.LockettD.RiederM. J. and ShahV.Inadequate pain management during routine childhood immunizations: the nerve of it”Clin. Ther. 31 (Suppl 2) (2009) S152S167.

TaddioA.GurguisM. G. and KorenG.Lidocaine-prilocaine cream versus tetracaine gel for procedural pain in childrenAnn. Pharmacother. 36 (2002) 687692.

TaddioA.KatzJ.HerischA. L. and Koren G. “Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain response during subsequent routine vaccination”Lancet 349 (1997a) 599603.

TaddioA.PollockN.Gilbert-MacleodC.OhlssonK. and KorenG.Combined analgesia and local anesthesia to minimize pain during circumcision”Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 154 (2000) 620623.

TaddioA.StevensB.CraigK.RastogiP.BendavidS.ShennanA.MulliganP. and KorenG.Efficacy and safety of lidocaine-prilocaine cream for pain during circumcision”N. Engl. J. Med. 336 (1997b) 11971201.

Task Force on Circumcision, “Cultural bias and circumcision: The aap Task Force on Circumcision Responds”Pediatrics 131 (2013) 801804.

TianY.LiuW.WangJ. Z.WazirR.YueX. and WangK. J.Effects of circumcision on male sexual functions: a systematic review and meta-analysis”Asian J. Androl. 15 (2013) 662666.

TobianA. A. and GrayR. H.The medical benefits of male circumcision”jama 306 (2011) 14791480.

ToubiaN.Female genital mutilation and the responsibility of reproductive health professionals”Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet. 46 (1994) 127135.

unicefA league table of teenage births in rich nations” Innocenti Report Card no. 3 (2001):

United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights Convention on the Rights of the Child. 44/25 20 November 1989: Retrieved from:

U.S.Meyer v. NebraskaU.S. 262 (1923) 390.

U.S.Pierce v. Society of SistersU.S. 268 (1925) 510.

U.S.Parham v. J.R.U.S. 442 (1979) 584.

U.S.Santosky v. KramerU.S. 455 (1982) 745.

Van HoweR. S.Incidence of meatal stenosis following neonatal circumcision in a primary care setting”Clin. Pediatr. (Phila.) 45 (2006) 4955.

Van HoweR. S.Infant circumcision: the last stand for the dead dogma of parental (sovereignal) rights”J. Med. Ethics 39(7) (2013) 475481.

VundaA.LacroixL. E.SchneiderF.ManzanoS. and GervaixA.Videos in clinical medicine. Reduction of paraphimosis in boysN. Engl. J Med. 368 (2013) e16.

WalterG. and StreimerJ. 'Genital self-mutilation: attempted foreskin reconstruction.' Brit. J. Psychiat. 156 (1990) 125127.

WamaiR. and MorrisB. J.‘How to contain generalized hiv epidemics’ article misconstrues the evidence”Int. J. std aids 22 (2011) 415416.

WamaiR. G. et al.Male circumcision for protection against hiv infection in sub-Saharan Africa: the evidence in favour justifies the implementation now in progress”Glob. Public Health 10 (2015) 639666.

WamaiR. G. et al.Male circumcision for hiv prevention: current evidence and implementation in sub-Saharan AfricaJ. Int. aids Soc. 14 (2011) Article 49:4117.

WamaiR. G. et al.Criticisms of African trials fail to withstand scrutiny: male circumcision does prevent hiv infectionJ. Law. Med. 20 (2012) 93123.

WamaiR. G. et al.Male circumcision is an efficacious, lasting and cost-effective strategy for combating hiv in high-prevalence aids epidemics: Time to move beyond debating the science”Future hiv Ther. 2 (2008) 399405.

WaskettJ. H. and MorrisB. J.Fine-touch pressure thresholds in the adult penis. (Critique of Sorrells ml, et al. bju Int 2007;99:864–869)bju Int. 99 (2007) 15511552.

WellerS. and Davis-BeatyK.Condom effectiveness in reducing heterosexual hiv transmissionCochrane Database Syst. Rev. (2002) cd003255.

who who and unaids announce recommendations from expert consultation on male circumcision for hiv prevention” (2007):

WilliamsN. and KapilaL.Complications of circumcision”Brit. J. Surg. 80 (1993) 12311236.

WilliamsonM. L. and WilliamsonP. S.Women’s preferences for penile circumcision in sexual partnersJ. Sex. Educ. Ther. 14 (1988) 812.

WrightJ. L.LinD. W. and StanfordJ. L.Circumcision and the risk of prostate cancer”Cancer 118 (2012) 44374443.

QuestionsYahooShould I get re-circumcised after 20 years and restoring improperly? (2015).

YeganeR. A.KheirollahiA. R.SalehiN. A.BashashatiM.KhoshdelJ. A. and AhmadiM.Late complications of circumcision in Iran”Pediatr. Surg. Int. 22 (2006) 442445.

YouGovCircumcision survey”: (2015).

ZorcJ. J.KiddooD. A. and ShawK. N.Diagnosis and management of pediatric urinary tract infections”Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 18 (2005) 417422.


Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 74 74 35
Full Text Views 64 64 47
PDF Downloads 4 4 2
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0