The Role of Non-State Actors in Reviewing Ambition, Implementation, and Compliance under the Paris Agreement

In: Climate Law
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  • 1 University of Eastern Finland, Finland Stockholm Environment Institute, United Kingdom

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Non-state actors will play a unique and crucial role in the implementation of the Paris Agreement. Although much of the focus in the lead-up to Paris was on the mitigation commitments and actions of non-state actors, this essay focuses on another valuable contribution they can make: to hold the parties to their obligations under the Paris Agreement. I argue that, while the formal avenues for non-state-actor participation in review processes—encompassing the review of implementation, compliance, and effectiveness—remain limited, there are several other ways in which non-state actors can be, and already have been, influential.

  • 16

    Peter J. Spiro, ‘Non-Governmental Organizations and Civil Society’, in The Oxford Handbook of International Environmental Law, edited by Daniel Bodansky et al. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), at 774.

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  • 17

    Kal Raustiala, ‘Non-State Actors in the Global Climate Regime’, in International Relations and Global Climate Change, edited by Urs Luterbacher and Detlef F. Sprinz (Cambridge, ma: mit Press, 2001), at 107.

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  • 25

    Since 2010, unep has released annual reports specifying the emission gap. For the latest version, see unep, The Emissions Gap Report 2015 (Nairobi: unep, 2015). The role of non-state initiatives (or ‘international cooperative initiatives’) was highlighted in its 2013 report. See unep, The Emissions Gap Report 2013 (Nairobi: unep, 2013), at 29–32.

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    Francesca Romanin Jacur, ‘Triggering Non-Compliance Procedures’, in Non-Compliance Procedures and Mechanisms and the Effectiveness of International Environmental Agreements, edited by Tulio Treves et al. (The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2009), at 380–381.

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