University of Leipzig, Institut für Kulturwissenschaften, Beethovenstr. 15, 04107 Leipzig, Germany
Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity, Göttingen
For more than two decades sociological debates over religion and secularization have been characterized by a confrontation between (often American) critics and (mostly European) defenders of secularization theories. At the same time, there was a remarkable rise in public debates about the role of secularism in political regimes and in national as well as civilizational frameworks. Against this backdrop this paper presents the conceptual framework of “multiple secularities” with a view to refocusing sociological research on religion and secularity. We will demonstrate that it can stimulate new ways of theorizing the relationship of religion and secularity in a variety of modern environments. Arguing for a reformulation of this relationship within the framework of cultural sociology, we conceptualize “secularity” in terms of the cultural meanings underlying the differentiation between religion and non-religious spheres. Building on Max Weber we distinguish four basic ideal-types of secularity that are related to specific reference problems and associated with specific guiding ideas. Finally, we illustrate the use of the concept with regard to selected case-studies.
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An exception is the book by Jacoby (2004) in which the history of American secularism is told as the history of a liberation movement and of its coalition with religious dissenters – for example in the controversies over the American Constitution.
Kuru (2009) defined critical junctures as periods or moments in which both agency and structural conditions are available for systematic change.