Public Redistribution and Voter Demand: The Role of the Middle Class

in Comparative Sociology
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The data in Cusack and Engelhardt (2002) are structured according to election periods which not always fit to lis-waves. In this case a mean over the 3–5 years preceding the variable in lis was calculated.


See also Iversen and Soskice (2009b) and Immervoll and Richardsen (2011: 14–15).


  • Income shares in the lower half of the income distribution. Q2 not shown for readability.
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  • Income shares in the upper half of the income distribution.
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  • Development of public redistribution.
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