This study uses the World Values Survey and country level data to explore how social structure, especially cross-national differences in female education, reproductive freedom, and participation in state policy formation, is related to attitudes of postmaterialism and gender ideology. Thefindings show that pro-woman state structure and policies are associated with higher educational attainment for citizens, higher work attainment and income levels, and greater satisfaction. Moreover, women and men who live in states with pro-woman policies are more postmodern in their attitudes; these individuals more readily support gender equality and prefer a culturally rich, high quality of life over economic gain. Women also have more postmodern attitudes than men. This research identifies the structural components and the social processes associated with the holding of individual attitudes, as suggested by House.