Niche segregation between two closely similar gammarids (Peracarida, Amphipoda) — native vs. naturalized non-native species

in Crustaceana
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Closely similar species may occupy similar niches, but usually divergence can be found in one or more traits when they inhabit the same habitat. In this study, we examined how two co-occurring gammarids — the native Gammarus fossarum and the naturalized G. roeselii — are distributed among microhabitats, depending on their sympatric or allopatric distribution. We hypothesized that the larger body-sized species (G. roeselii), exploiting their advantages in competition, restrict smaller species to microhabitats with smaller particle sizes. Four headwaters were sampled in the Mecsek Mountains (SW Hungary) in May, July and October 2009, and 37 local scale environmental variables at each site were measured. Although G. fossarum is smaller in size, significantly more individuals were collected from the more favourable lithal and biotic microhabitats, whereas a strong negative association was observed between the two species. Gammarus roeselii occurred at sites characterized by degraded riparian vegetation, which indicates stronger anthropogenic impacts, but still has a disadvantage in competition in mountainous streams under anthropogenic influence.

Niche segregation between two closely similar gammarids (Peracarida, Amphipoda) — native vs. naturalized non-native species

in Crustaceana

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References

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Figures

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    Map of the study area. Filled circles (●) mark sites where Gammarus fossarum Koch, in Panzer 1836 and Gammarus roeselii Gervais, 1835 co-exist and open circles (○) mark sites where G. fossarum is the only occurring gammarid. Petőczi-árok: Petőczi stream (Bakonya; 46°07′17″N 18°03′42″E; 187 m a.s.l.); Vízfő: Vízfő spring (Orfű; 46°08′21″N 18°09′37″E; 219 m a.s.l.); Hidasi-völgy: Hidas stream (Komló; 46°11′46″N 18°19′06″E; 319 m a.s.l.), Ól-völgy: Ól stream (Szászvár, 46°15′49″N 18°22′01″E; 218 m a.s.l.).

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    Based on the mean of abundances, Gammarus fossarum Koch, in Panzer 1836 showed no significant microhabitat preference in the case of its single occurrence in each season (□, interquartile range; —, median; ⊤, SEM; , outlier).

  • View in gallery

    Based on the mean of abundances, it is clearly visible that Gammarus fossarum Koch, in Panzer 1836 showed a remarkable change in microhabitat preference in the case of co-existence with Gammarus roeselii Gervais, 1835 compared with the habitat choice of its single occurrences (□, interquartile range; —, median; ⊤, SEM; , outlier).

  • View in gallery

    Based on the mean of abundances, a definite preference of microhabitat of Gammarus roeselii Gervais, 1835 was found in the case of co-existence with Gammarus fossarum Koch, in Panzer 1836 in each season (□, interquartile range; —, median; ⊤, SEM; , outlier).

  • View in gallery

    Comparison of the abiotic conditions of the two sites with different species composition suggests the degraded state of the sites where both species co-occurred (○, proportion of xylal microhabitat at the 100 m section; □, water-depth; ◇, concentration of Ca2+ ion; ×, % shrubs (0-1 m); △, number of degraded riparian habitats; ▽, number of degraded habitats at the nearest hill-side; , the proportion of the forest coverage at the nearest slopes).

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