Life histories and distribution of ostracods with depth in western Lake Geneva (Petit-Lac), Switzerland: a reconnaissance study

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Because environmental conditions within a given basin are different for each season and at different water depth, knowledge of the life history and depth distribution of target species is important for environmental and palaeoenvironmental interpretations based on ostracod species assemblages and/or the geochemical compositions of their valves. In order to determine the distribution of species with depth as well as the life history of species from Lake Geneva, a one-year sampling campaign of living ostracods was conducted at five sites (2, 5, 13, 33 and 70 m water depth) on a monthly basis in the Petit-Lac (western basin of Lake Geneva, Switzerland). Based on the results, the different species can be classified into three groups. Littoral taxa are found at 2 and 5 m water depth and include, in decreasing numbers of individuals, Cypridopsis vidua (O. F. Müller, 1776), Pseudocandona compressa (Koch, 1838), Limnocythere inopinata (Baird, 1843), Herpetocypris reptans (Baird, 1835), Potamocypris smaragdina (Vávra, 1891), Potamocypris similis (G. W. Müller, 1912), Plesiocypridopsis newtoni (Brady & Robertson, 1870), Prionocypris zenkeri (Chyzer & Toth, 1858) and Ilyocypris sp. Brady & Norman, 1889. Sublittoral species are found in a majority at 13 m water depth and to a lesser extend at 33 m water depth and include, in decreasing numbers of individuals, Fabaeformiscandona caudata (Kaufmann, 1900), Limnocytherina sanctipatricii, Candona candida (O. F. Müller, 1776) and Isocypris beauchampi (Paris, 1920). Profundal species are found equally at 13, 33 and 70 m water depth and includes, in decreasing numbers of individuals, Cytherissa lacustris (Sars, 1863), Candona neglecta Sars, 1887 and Cypria lacustris Lilljeborg, 1890. The occurrence of Limnocytherina sanctipatricii (Brady & Robertson, 1869) is restricted from late winter to late spring when temperatures are low, while C. vidua, L. inopinata, P. smaragdina, P. similis, P. newtoni and Ilyocypris sp. occur predominantly from spring to early autumn when temperatures are high. Individuals of C. neglecta, C. candida, F. caudata, P. compressa, C. lacustris, H. reptans and Cp. lacustris occur throughout the year with juveniles and adults occurring during the same period (C. neglecta at 70 m, C. lacustris at 13, 33 and 70 m, and H. reptans at 2, 5 and 13 m water depth) or with juveniles occurring during a different period of the year than adults (C. neglecta at 13 and 33 m and C. candida, F. caudata and P. compressa at their respective depth of occurrence). Among the environmental parameters investigated, an estimate of the relationship between ostracod autoecology and environmental parameters suggests that in the Petit-Lac: (i) water temperature and substrate characteristics are important factors controlling the distribution of species with depth, (ii) water temperature is also important for determining the timing of species development and, hence, its specific life history, and (iii) water oxygen and sedimentary organic matter content is less important compared to the other environmental parameter monitored.

Crustaceana

International Journal of Crustacean Research

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Figures

  • Geographic setting of Lake Geneva and sampling sites of this study. Locations in the Swiss coordinate system are 3 m (502,085/126,280), 5 m (502,310/126,280), 13 m (505,055/125,100), 33 m (504,860/129,555), and 70 m (506,000/128,055).

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  • Continuous record of water temperature at 2, 5, 13 and 33 m water depth and monthly variations of major environmental parameters at 2, 5, 13, 33 and 70 m water depth. ‘Punctual’ temp. record is the water temperature measured in situ at the time of ostracod collection, δ13CDIC is the carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved oxygen content is given both in mg/l and in saturation level. Temperature and isotopic data are from Decrouy et al. (2011a). Dissolved oxygen content was measured within the water column at 2.5, 5, 15, 30 and 70 m water depth at the 70 m water depth site shown in fig. 1C (data from “Service de l’Écologie de l’Eau”, SECOE) and was related to the sites of 2, 5, 13, 33 and 70 m depth to allow for comparison. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/15685403.

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  • (A) Simplified composite cross-section of the studied zone; (B) estimated number of individuals for each species at the different sampling sites, the thicker the line, the higher the number of individuals; (C) relative individual abundances of species for sites at 13, 33 and 70 m depth, based on the annual mean number of individuals (minimal and maximal values of monthly samples are given in parentheses).

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  • Instar-frequency distributions based on monthly number of individuals per sample for Candona candida (O. F. Müller, 1776), Candona neglecta Sars, 1887, Fabaeformiscandona caudata (Kaufmann, 1900) and Pseudocandona compressa (Koch, 1838) at different depth in Lake Geneva. The location of the y-axes corresponds to the date of sampling given at the bottom of the figure.

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  • Instar-frequency distributions based on monthly number of individuals per sample for Cypria lacustris Lilljeborg, 1890, Prionocypris zenkeri (Chyzer & Toth, 1858), Herpetocypris reptans (Baird, 1835), Isocypris beauchampi (Paris, 1920) and Cypridopsis vidua (O. F. Müller, 1776) at different depth in Lake Geneva. The location of the y-axes corresponds to the date of sampling given at the bottom of the figure.

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  • Instar-frequency distributions based on monthly number of individuals sample for Limnocythere inopinata (Baird, 1843), Limnocytherina sanctipatricii (Brady & Robertson, 1869) and Cytherissa lacustris (Sars, 1863) at different depth in Lake Geneva. The location of the y-axes corresponds to the date of sampling given at the bottom of the figure.

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  • Construction of the graphical illustration showing the life-cycle of dominant species from Lake Geneva. Each concentric ring corresponds to a development stage, the younger juvenile stage being in the centre of the illustration and the adult being shown in the most external ring. Individual relative abundance is represented using a grey-scale shading; the darker the shading, the higher is the individual abundance. A black/white star is inserted to indicate when the population is dominated by males. Monthly mean water temperature is given for each month around the illustration.

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  • Graphical illustrations of the life-cycle of species of Candonidae Kaufmann, 1900. See fig. 7 for more information on the graphical illustration of the ostracod life-cycle.

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  • Graphical illustration of life-cycle of species of Cyprididae Baird, 1845 and Cytheroidea Baird, 1850. See fig. 7 for more information about the graphical illustration of the ostracod life-cycle.

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