Redefinition of the genus Typhlocypris Vejdovský, 1882 (Ostracoda, Candonidae)

in Crustaceana
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The taxonomy of the genus Typhlocypris Vejdovský, 1882 is reviewed. New morphological information on Typhlocypris eremita (Vejdovský, 1882), the type species of the genus, is provided, and a new reference material is presented. The generic diagnosis is emended with details derived from the developmental trajectory of the valves, from the juvenile stage A-3 to the adult. Those criteria clearly differentiate Typhlocypris from the related genus Pseudocandona Kaufmann, 1900. As here redefined, Typhlocypris is a phylogentic lineage of the subfamily Candoninae containing extant species presently living in aquatic subterranean habitats and fossil species recovered from non-marine Late Palaeogene to Neogene and Quaternary deposits in Europe and western Asia. The type species of Typhlocypris is considered a metaspecies, taxonomically treated as T. eremita (sensu lato), which includes populations resembling the newly designated reference material. The homeomorphic triangular valve shape of the Candoninae is discussed. Careful examination of the valve morphology of Typhlocypris combined with the analysis of limb traits helps to distinguish representatives of this genus from unrelated phylogenetic groups presenting similar triangularly shaped valves. It is emphasised that for a useful description of Typhlocypris taxa both transmitted light and scanning electron microscopy are necessary.

Redefinition of the genus Typhlocypris Vejdovský, 1882 (Ostracoda, Candonidae)

in Crustaceana

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References

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Figures

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    Reproduction of morphological details of Typhlocypris eremita (Vejdovský, 1882) from Vejdovský (1882: Plate 7, figs. 1, 2 and 6). A, Individual with carapace and limbs; B, A-3 juv stage with “Anlage” of L7 (arrow); C, A2 of juv figured in B, with presumed swimming setae (arrows); D, Posterior part of Ad, with details on the distal setae on L7 (arrow). Not to scale.

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    Typhlocypris eremita (Vejdovský, 1882), viewed from the left side. A, Carapace reproduced from Vávra (1891a: fig. 15/1); B, LV in outer lateral view from Jančařík (1952: fig. 2); C, Superposition in standardised for equal surface mode of Ad valve-shapes in lateral views from illustrations of Vávra (1891a: fig. 15/1) — indicated as 0, Jančařík (1952: fig. 2) = 1 and Absolon (1978: fig. 25) = 2; D, Superposition of valve-shapes, standardised for equal surface, from illustrations of Absolon (1978: fig. 25) = 0, Jančařík (1952: fig. 2) = 1 and Vejdovský (1882: pl. 7, fig. 1) = 2. Delta vectors in C and D are 2.5× enlarged.

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    Typhlocypris eremita (Vejdovský, 1882). A-B, Superposition of LV-shapes in lateral views of Ad and juv stages A-1 and A-2. A, non-standardised for equal surface and B, standardised for equal surface outlines from Absolon (1978: fig. 25), Ad indicated as 0, juv A-1 = 1 and A-2 = 2; C, Superposition in the standardised for equal surface mode of A-2 LV from Absolon (1978: fig. 25) = 0 and the outline from Vejdovský (1882: Plate 7, fig. 1) = 1; D, Superposition in the standardised for equal surface mode of Ad LV No. 8354 from Čečelice = 0 and the outline from Farkas (1958: fig. 51/A) = 1. Scale bar in A, 0.1 mm. Delta vectors in B-D are 2.5× enlarged.

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    Typhlocypris eremita (Vejdovský, 1882), specimens from Čečelice. A, Ad LV No. 8354 (new reference material) in outer lateral view; B, Ad LV No. 8354 as in A but with visible foveolae in the central surface; C, enlarged anterior end of LV No. 8354 (new reference material) with details on the fused zone and the short and straight marginal pore canals; D, Ad LV No. 8355 outer lateral view; E, Ad RV No. 8356, reversed outer lateral view; F, A-2 RV No. 8357, reversed outer lateral view; G, same as F but with visible foveolae in the central surface; H, superposition in non-standardised for equal surface mode of Ad LV-shapes of specimens No. 8354 (new reference material) = 0 and 8355 = 1; I, superposition in standardised for equal surface mode of LV No. 8354 (new reference material) = 0, LV no. 8355 = 1 and Absolon’s (1978) LV from fig. 25 = 2. Scale bars: A, B, D-G, 0.2 mm, C and H, 0.1 mm. Delta vectors in H and I are 2.5× enlarged.

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    A-C, Typhlocypris eremita (Vejdovský, 1882) specimens from Čečelice, SEM microphotographs. A, Ad LV No. 8354 (new reference material) outer lateral view; B, detail from A of central surface with enlarged foveolae; C, juv A-2 RV No. 8358 outer lateral view; D, Typhlocypris sp. juv ? A-3 LV No. 3915 outer lateral view from Hennersdorf near Vienna (Late Miocene, Pannonian E) in the layer Nα (cf. Danielopol et al., 2011, fig. 6). Scale bars: A-C, 0.1 mm, D, 0.2 mm.

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    Typhlocypris eremita (Vejdovský, 1882) (sensu lato), valves of living specimens from Hotarele, south of Bucharest. A-G, LVs outer lateral view; H-K, RVs reverse outer lateral view; A-C, female Ad valve No. 8299; A, general view; B, detail of the dorsal margin with slightly developed umbo; C, detail of the anterior margin with the short marginal pore canals; D, juv A-1 valve No. 8301, E, juv A-2 valve No. 8303; F, juv A-3 valve No. 8306; G, detail of the dorsal margin of juv A-3 valve No. 8305; H, Ad valve No. 8300; I, juv A-1 valve No. 8302; J, juv A-2 valve No. 8304; K, juv A-3 valve No. 8307. Scale bars: 0.2 mm, except B, C and G, 0.1 mm.

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    Typhlocypris eremita (Vejdovský, 1882) (sensu lato). A and B, superposition of valve outlines of Ad female indicated as 0 and juv A-1 (=1), A-2 (=2) and A-3 (=3) stages of living individuals from Hotarele; A, in non-standardised for equal surface mode; B, in standardised for equal surface mode; C, superposition of Ad LV No. 8354 from Čečelice (0) and Ad LV No. 8299 from Hotarele in standardised for equal surface mode; D, superposition of Ad RV-shapes in standardised for equal surface mode of the specimens from Čečelice in Absolon (1978: fig. 25R) indicated as 0, our valve No. 8356 from Čečelice (=1), valve No. 8300 from Hotarele (2), and valve from Farkas (1958: fig. 51B) (3). Scale bar in A, 0.1 mm. Delta vectors in B-D are 2.5× enlarged.

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    Superposition of valve-shapes of Ad (0) and juv A-3 stage (1) in standardised for equal surface mode. A-C, LVs; D, RVs; A, Pseudocandona sarsi (Hartwig, 1899), valve outline from Absolon (1978: fig. 6); B, Pseudocandona albicans (Brady, 1864) data from Kovalenko (1983: fig. 1); C-D, Typhlocypris eremita (Vejdovský, 1882) (sensu lato) from Hotarele; C, valve No. 8299 (Ad) and valve No. 8306 (juv A-3); D, valve No. 8300 (Ad) and valve No. 8307 (juv A-3).

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    Typhlocypris incertae sedis, Candona (Typhlocypris) aff. eremita (Vejdovský, 1882) in Gross (2004); A, LV outer view from Gross (2004: Plate 3, fig. 13); B, same specimen as in A but inner view from Gross (2004: Plate 4, fig. 1). Length 0.8 mm.

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    Fossil Caspiocypris species from Azerbaijan (Apsheronian), LVs presenting some of the typical traits of Typhlocypris. A-B, Caspiocypris schneiderae Livental, 1961; A, Ad outer view; B, juv outer view; C-D, Caspiocypris ola Markova, 1961 Ad valves; C, outer view; D, inner view. From Agalarova et al. (1961: Plate 6, figs. 1, 2a, 2b, 3).

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    Mixtacandona tabacarui Danielopol & Cvetkov, 1979. A, Ad male LV inner view; B, Ad male RV and limbs; C-D, details of the umbo in inner view; C, Ad female; D, juv A-1. From Danielopol & Cvetkov (1979: figs. 8, A, B, D, E) reproduced with permission from Springer Publishers, Dordrecht.

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