Large-scale oceanic circulation and larval recruitment of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804)

in Crustaceana
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The most important populations of the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804)) in the Atlantic are found in the Caribbean and along the Brazilian coast. Field studies covering the waters off the Cuban archipelago and Brazil have improved our understanding of the importance of oceanic circulation to larval recruitment. South of Cuba, puerulus settlement is intensive in October and November when the coastal reefs (83°W) are impacted by a cyclone-anticyclone pair, suggesting this area is the main source of retention and supply of surviving larvae, thus of self-recruitment. On the continental shelf of Brazil, puerulus settlement takes place throughout the year, but two annual peaks have been identified: one in March-April and one in July-September, when retroflection eddies of the North Brazil Current are more intense and feed into the eastward-flowing North Equatorial Countercurrent. Conceivably, Brazilian spiny lobster larvae are trapped in this oceanic system, leading to self-recruitment. On the continental shelf of Brazil the larval period lasts 6-7 months, depending on the season and spawning date. In the Caribbean the period is reported to be 6-8 months. Information on the relative abundance of early-stage spiny lobster larvae makes it possible to predict patterns of recruitment of pueruli and juveniles and the timing of their life cycle. However, further research on seasonal variations in local currents, current retroflection and ring formation is needed to clarify important aspects of larval transport, puerulus settlement and recruitment.

Large-scale oceanic circulation and larval recruitment of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804)

in Crustaceana

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References

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Figures

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    Map of the Cuban archipelago showing the four main shelf areas: GB = SW (Gulf of Batabanó), SE, NE and NW. Schematic representation of mean current circulation and anti-cyclonic (black arrow) and cyclonic (dashed arrow) circulation south of Cuba, modified from Richardson (2005). Circular black lines with arrows in opposite directions indicate eddy formation (modified from Victoria del Río & Penié, 1998). Shelf mean current circulation (gray arrow), modified from Emilsson (1971) and Blázquez-Echandi & Romeu (1982). The black rectangle shows details of puerulus monitoring sites near the reefs: M (Matias), H (Hicacos), C (Cantiles), DP (Diego Pérez), BR (Boca Rica), CP (Cruz del Padre) and CV (Cayo Verde).

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    Map of the continental shelf of Brazil showing the states along the coast: Amapá (AP), Pará (PA), Maranhão (MA), Piauí (PI), Ceará (CE), Rio Grande do Norte (RN), Paraíba (PB), Pernambuco (PE), Alagoas (AL), Sergipe (SE), Bahia (BA) and Espírito Santo (ES). Schematic representation of mean current and eddy generation: SEC, South Equatorial Current; NBC, North Brazil Current; BC, Brazil Current; R-NBC, Retroflexion of NBC; NECC, North Equatorial Countercurrent; GC, The Guiana Current. Dashed red arrow indicates subsurface eddy formation reported by several authors. Northern eddies (1): Richardson et al. (1994), Johns et al. (1998, 2003), Bischoff et al. (2003), Goni & Johns (2003). The Macau eddy (2): Marin (2009), Schmidt et al. (2011). Southern eddies (3, 4 and 5): Dengler et al. (2004), Lumpkin & Garzoli (2005). This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/15685403.

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    Berried female index pattern for the spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804) on the continental shelf of Brazil. Middle waters (20-50 m) in the northeastern region (modified from Soares & Cavalcante, 1984), and deeper waters (50-100 m) in the northern region.

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    Settlement index pattern for the spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804) at the southwestern stations of Matías (M), Hicacos (H), Cantiles (C) and Diego Pérez (DP) in the Gulf of Batabanó (1988-1996), at the southeastern station of Boca Rica (BR), and at the northeastern stations of Cayo Verde (CV) and Cruz del Padre (CP) (1991), Cuban archipelago. The average (A) was plotted as a continuous black line with bold dots above the other lines for a better illustration of spiny lobster recruitment patterns in the Cuban archipelago.

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    Variation in the number of settling pueruli of Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804) per year in the shallow waters off Flecheiras (39°13.5′W 3°14.5′S), a community on the coast of Ceará, Brazil. The black line parallel to the abscissa represents the average and the dashed line the 95% confidence interval.

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    Pattern of average settlement pueruli of Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804) on the coasts of Brazil (2003-2006) and Cuba (1988-1996).

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    Size composition of juveniles and pre-recruits of Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804) on the coast of Acaraú (40°05′W 2°46′S), a community on the coast of Ceará, Brazil. Black bar, juveniles; white bar, Pre-recruits; gray bar, adults. Period: January-August 2014.

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    Summaries of cyclone (blue) and anticyclone (red) eddies southwest of Cuba, as they translated westwards during the months of November, December 1999, and January and February 2000 (modified from Richardson, 2005), compared against variation in puerulus settlement (1988-1996). The coloured dots indicate the range of the average number of settling pueruli (1988-1996). Stations in the vicinity of reefs: 1 (Matias), 2 (Hicacos), 3 (Cantiles) and 4 (Diego Pérez). The large island to the south is Isla de la Juventud. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/15685403.

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    Seasonal (left) and monthly (right) averages of surface currents (m/s) obtained from the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM/NCODA). The map shows the direction (arrow), intensity (colour) and formation of North Brazil Current retroflection eddies. The red dot indicates the station off Flecheiras (F) where puerulus settlement was sampled. Seasons: July-September and October-December (2003, 2005 and 2006). This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/15685403.

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    Seasonal (left) and monthly (right) averages of surface currents (m/s) obtained from the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM/NCODA). The map shows the direction (arrow), intensity (colour) and formation of North Brazil Current retroflection eddies. The red dot indicates the station off Flecheiras (F) where puerulus settlement was sampled. Seasons: January-March and April-June (2003, 2005 and 2006). This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/15685403.

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    Diagram showing the retroflection and eddies (2003, 2005 and 2006) based on monthly averages of surface currents (m/s) obtained from the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM/NCODA). The complex circulation of the North Brazil Current retroflection eddies is illustrated by different colours. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/15685403.

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    Time-series of recruitment of Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804) larvae at northern and southern latitudes of the Atlantic. Modified from Bermuda (Ward, 1989), Central Bahamas (Eggleston et al., 1998), Bimini Bahamas (Afonso & Gruber, 2007), Jamaica (Young, 1991); Mexican Caribbean (Briones & Gutiérrez, 1991; Briones, 1994; Briones et al., 2008), Antigua (Peacock, 1974; Bannerot et al., 1992), Cahuita (González & Wehrtmann, 2011) and Limón (Umaña & Chacón, 1994) in Costa Rica (CR); Florida, Puerto Rico, Honduras, Venezuela (VE) (Butler et al., 2010); Cuban archipelago and Flecheiras, Brazil (present study).

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    Timing of recruitment stages of Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804) based on two cohorts hatched in the austral autumn and spring of 2005, respectively. Carapace length (CL) was calculated for each stage using the equation described in Material and Methods.

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