A new genus, Peniculoides (Copepoda, Calanoida), from deep waters of the North Atlantic with notes on the definition of Clausocalanidae

in Crustaceana
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A new calanoid copepod Peniculoides secundus gen. et sp. nov. is described from a female specimen collected in the northern Atlantic from abyssal waters close to the sea bed during the German expedition DIVA 3 in 2009. Peniculoides gen. nov. is a representative of the superfamily Clausocalanoidea with a heavily sclerotized mandibular gnathobase and maxillular praecoxal arthrite, the maxillular coxal epipodite lacking setae and the maxilla with coxal to basal endites flat and round distally, their surfaces densely covered by short, brush-like spinules. The new genus, Peniculoides is provisionally placed in the Clausocalanidae. A combination of characters is proposed to distinguish between the families Clausocalanidae and Aetideidae. The generic composition of Clausocalanidae is revised.


International Journal of Crustacean Research



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  • Peniculoides secundus sp. nov. Female, holotype. A, habitus, dorsal; B, habitus, lateral; C, anterior cephalosome, lateral; D, rostrum, ventral; E, posterior prosome and urosome, dorsal; F, posterior prosome and urosome lateral; G, posterior prosome and genital double-somite, ventral; H, spermathecae, lateral view; I, caudal rami, ventral; J, P5, ventral view. Md, mandible; Prgn, paragnaths; Mx2, maxilla. Scale bars: A-B, 0.5 mm, C-J, 0.1 mm.

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  • Peniculoides secundus sp. nov. Female, holotype. A, right antennule, ancestral segments I-XIV; B, right antennule, ancestral segments XV-XX; C, right antennule, ancestral segments XXI-XXVIII; D left antennule, ancestral segments XXVII-XXVIII; E, maxillule; F, P1; G, P1, endopod. Absent setae are indicated by dotted line. Enp, endopod; exp, exopod. Scale bars: 0.1 mm.

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  • Peniculoides secundus sp. nov. Female, holotype. A, antenna; B, antenna, exopod, different view, proximal segment is not figured; C, D and E, maxilla in different views, endite setation is not figured in D. Enp, endopod; p, praecoxal endite; c, coxal endite; bp, basal proximal endite; bd, basal distal endite; abd, attenuation of basal distal endite; el, enditic-like lobe of proximal endopodal segment. Scale bars: 0.1 mm.

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  • Peniculoides secundus sp. nov. Female, holotype. A, mandible; B, C, mandible, gnathobase different views; D, maxilliped syncoxa and basis; E, maxilliped, free segments of endopod. Scale bars: 0.1 mm.

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  • Peniculoides secundus sp. nov. Female, holotype. A, P2; B, P3; C, P4. Scale bars: 0.1 mm.

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  • Microcalanus pygmaeus, A, maxilla, female; B, Farrania sp., maxilla, female; C, Aetideopsis armata, maxilla, praecoxal endite, female; D, Farrania sp., maxilla, praecoxal endite, female. Scale bars: 0.1 mm.

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