Morphometric differentiation among populations of Leptodius exaratus (H. Milne Edwards, 1834) (Brachyura, Xanthidae) from the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman

in Crustaceana
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

The marine environment of the Persian Gulf is characterized by extreme biophysical factors, like high salinities. This gulf is a semi-enclosed basin and is connected to the Gulf of Oman via the narrow Strait of Hormuz that may act as a barrier to gene flow between the two gulfs. Consequently, animal populations living in the Persian Gulf are hypothesized to be isolated and thus to evolve independently from neighbouring populations. We tested this hypothesis with the xanthid crab, Leptodius exaratus (H. Milne Edwards, 1834), which is one of the most common intertidal crabs occurring in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. Four-hundred-and-fifty specimens were collected from eight sampling sites, i.e., four sites each in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. Fifteen morphometric characters were measured. Males and females were analysed separately to avoid bias as a consequence of sexual dimorphism. Due to the lack of normal distribution in males, two different approaches were carried out in this paper. Female specimens were included in parametric analyses, while males were tested with permutational multivariate analyses of variance. In female morphometric characters, t-test analyses showed significant differences between the two sets of populations, and the discriminant analysis showed divergence between the two groups (with 83% correct groupings). In the males, the applied analyses showed a significant difference (P=0.002) between the two gulfs. These divergences can be interpreted as a consequence of regional adaptations and a low rate of larval migration between the two gulfs.

Morphometric differentiation among populations of Leptodius exaratus (H. Milne Edwards, 1834) (Brachyura, Xanthidae) from the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman

in Crustaceana

Sections

References

AlosairiY.ImbergerJ.FalconerR. A.2010. Mixing and flushing in the Persian Gulf (Arabian Gulf). Journal of Geophysical Research116: 1-14.

AnagnostouC.SchubartC. D.2014. Morphometric characteristion of a population of adult coconut crab Birgus latro (Decapoda: Anomura: Coenobitidae) from Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement30: 136-149.

BarthH.-J.KhanN. Y.2008. Biogeophysical setting of the Gulf. In: AbuzinadaA. H.BarthH.-J.KruppF.BöerB.AbdessalamT. Z. (eds.) Protecting the Gulf ’s marine ecosystem from pollution: 1-22. (BirkhäuserBasel).

BolnickD. I.AmarasekareP.AraújoM. S.BürgerR.LevineJ. M.NovakM.RudolfV. H. W.SchreiberS. J.UrbanM. C.VasseurD.2011. Why intraspecific trait variations matters in community ecology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution26: 183-192.

ClarkP. F.PaulaJ.2003. Description of ten xanthoidean (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) first stage zoeas from Inhaca Island, Mozambique. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology51: 323-378.

DavisR. B.1987. Hypothesis testing when a nuisance parameter is present only under the alternative. Biometrika74: 33-43.

FielderD. R.GreenwoodJ. G.JonesM. M.1979. Larval development of crab Leptodius exaratus (Decapoda, Xanthidae), reared in the laboratory. Proceedings of Royal Society of Queensland90: 117-127.

GhanbarifardiM.AliabadianM.EsmaeiliH.PolgarG.2014. Morphological divergence in the Walton’s mudskipper, Periophthalmus waltoni Koumans, 1941, from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman (Gobioidei: Gobiidae). Zoology in the Middle East60: 133-143.

HartnollR. G.1974. Variation in growth pattern between some secondry sexual characters in crabs (Decapoda Brachyura). Crustaceana27: 131-136.

HoolihanJ. P.AnandhP.van HerwerdenL.2006. Mitochondrial DNA analyses of narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) siggest a single genetic stock in ROPME sea area (Arabian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, and Arabian Sea). ICES Journal of Marine Science63: 1066-1074.

HopkinsM. J.ThurmanC. L.2010. The geographic structure of morphological variation in eight species of fiddler crabs (Ocypodidae: genus Uca) from the eastern United States and Mexico. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society100: 248-270.

LambeckK.1996. Shoreline recunstructions for the Persian Gulf since the last glacial maximum. Earth and Planetary Science Letters142: 43-57.

LeeS.MendozaJ. C. E.NgP. K. L.KimW.2013. On the identity of the Indo-West Pacific littoral xanthid crab, Leptodius exaratus (H. Milne Edwards,1834) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Xanthidae). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology61: 189-204.

LwinT. T.DoiW.YokotaM.StrüssmannC. A.WatanabeS.2007. Juvenile morphology of xanthid crab Leptodius exaratus (H. Milne-Edwards, 1834) (Decapoda: Brachyura), with notes on appearance of sextual dimorphism. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development50: 191-201.

MariappanP.BalasundaramC.SchmitzB.2000. Decapod crustacean chelipeds: an overview. Journal of Biosciences25: 301-303.

MarshallD. J.MonroK.BodeM.KeoughM. J.SwearerS.2010. Phenotype-environment mismatches reduce connectivity in sea. Ecology Letters13: 128-140.

MuggeoV. M. R.2008. Segmented: an R package to fit regression models with broken-line relationships. R News8: 20-25.

NaderlooR.TürkayM.2012. Decapod crustaceans of the littoral and shallow sublittoral Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf: faunistics, biodiversity and zoogeography. Zootaxa3374: 1-67.

NaderlooR.TürkayM.SariA.2013. Intertidal habitats and decapod (Crustacea) diversity of Qeshm Island, a biodiversity hotspot within the Persian Gulf. Marine Biodiversity43: 445-462.

OksanenJ.BlanchetF. G.KindtR.LegendreP.MinchinP. R.O’HaraR. B.SimpsonG. L.SolymosP.HenryM.StevensH.WagnerH.2015. Vegan: community ecology package. R package version 2.3.1 available online at http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vegan.

R Development Core Team2009. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. (R Foundation for Statistical ComputingVienna).

RagionieriL.FratiniS.VanniniM.SchubartC. D.2009. Phylogenetic and morphometric differentiation reveal geographic radiation and pseudo-cryptic speciation in a mangrove crab from the Indo-West Pacific. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution52: 825-834.

ReuschelS.SchubartC. D.2006. Contrasting genetic diversity with phenotypic diversity in coloration and size in Xantho poressa (Brachyura: Xanthidae), with new results on its ecology. Marine Ecology28: 296-305.

SadighzadehZ.ValinassabT.VosugiG.MotallebiA. A.FatemiM. R.LombarteA.TusetV. M.2014. Use of otolith shape for stock identification of John’s snapper, Lutjanus johnii (Pisces: Lutjanidae), from the Persian Gulf and the Oman sea. Fisheries Research155: 59-63.

SheppardC.Al-HusainiM.Al-JamaliF.Al-YamaniF.BaldwinR.BishopJ.BenzoniF.DutrieuxE.DulvyN. K.DurvasulaS. R. V.JonesD. A.LoughlandR.MedioD.NithyanandanM.PillingG. M.PolikarpovI.PriceA. R. G.PurkisS.RieglB.SaburnovaM.Samimi NaminK.TaylorO.WilsonS.ZainalK.2010. The Gulf: a young sea in decline. Marine Pollution Bulletin60: 13-38.

SheppardC.PriceA.RobertsC.1992. Marine ecology of the Arabian region patterns and processes in extreme tropical environment. (Academic PressSan Diego, CA).

SpivakE. D.ArévaloE.CuestaJ. A.González-GordilloJ. I.2010. Population structure and reproductive biology of the stone crab Xantho poressa (Crustacea: Decapoda: Xanthidae) in the ‘Corrales de Rota’ (south-western Spain), a human-modified intertidal fishing area. Journal of Marine Biological association of the United Kingdom90: 323-334.

StillwellR. C.BlanckenhornW. U.TederT.DavidowitzG.FoxC. W.2010. Sex differences in phenotypic plasticity affect variation in sexual size dimorphism in insects: from physiology to evolution. Annual Review of Entomology55: 227-245.

StillwellR. C.DavidowitzG.2010. Sex differences in phenotypic plasticity of a mechanism that controls body size: implications for sexual size dimorphism. Proceedings of the Royal Society77: 3819-3826.

ToddP. A.QiuW.ChongK. Y.2009. Ontogenetic shifts in carapace patterning and/or colouration in intertidal and subtidal Brachyuran crabs. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology57: 543-550.

YaoF.2008. Water mass formation and circulation in the Persian Gulf and water exchange with the Indian Ocean. Open Access Dissertations paper 183 available online at http://scholarlyrepository.miami.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1182&context=oa_dissertations.

Figures

  • View in gallery

    Sampling localities for the present study. Map of the southern coastline of Iran based on Diva-GIS. The filled circles indicate the sampling sites: 1, Genaveh; 2, Bushehr; 3, Moghdan; 4, Qeshm Island; (1-4, all Persian Gulf); 5, Bahal; 6, Abd; 7, Djod; 8, Tiss; (5-8, all Gulf of Oman).

  • View in gallery

    Measures used for morphometric analyses of Leptodius exaratus (H. Milne Edwards, 1834). A, chela; B, carapace; C, 4th walking leg; D, ventral surface (sternites and abdomen). All the figures are drawn in the same scale.

  • View in gallery

    The graphs here shown for Leptodius exaratus (H. Milne Edwards, 1834) indicate that: A, the correlations to carapace width are linear for the width of the 6th abdominal somite in females, without an abrupt change with maturity (P=0.315); B, in males, allometric growth can be observed (P=0.001), and the onset of maturity can be estimated with the break point at approximately 14.9 mm carapace width.

  • View in gallery

    Discriminant analysis of the collection sites based on the ratios of morphometric characters of Leptodius exaratus (H. Milne Edwards, 1834). A plot of the first discriminant function with 49.2% of total variance against the second function with 18.0% of total variance. The squares indicate the group centroids, the triangles are the samples collected in Persian Gulf and the circles are the samples of Gulf of Oman.

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 22 22 21
Full Text Views 11 11 11
PDF Downloads 2 2 2
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0